Saturday, August 31, 2019

Marketing Kraft Food Group, Inc.

KRAFT FOODS GROUP, INC. JASMINE de GENESTE Kraft Foods Group, Inc. Kraft Foods Group, Inc. is a compilation of C. W. Post, Oscar Meyer and James Lewis Kraft. Each of these men started a business that would grow significantly because of the innovative thinking and vision they had to produce a product that gained customer loyalty and profits. The way they conducted business in the late19th Century, early 20th Century showed vision for a future that would be able to distribute products effectively and efficiently through advertising the brand name. â€Å"Mr.Post used marketing techniques that are now considered industry standards, but which were innovative for their time. These included extensive advertising, coupons, free samples, product demonstrations, plant tours and recipe booklets† (Mit. edu, 2013). Many organizations today offers, free samples, coupons and product demonstrations and the amount of money that are used for marketing is astronomical. Each of these men went aro und the communities to advertise and sell the products to customers, by using horse and cart. This gained the trust of customers and the appreciation that they delivered allowed them to gain even more business.Throughout the years as each of the companies grew and the â€Å"brand name† became popular and trusted by consumers, allowed for mergers and acquisitions to expand the businesses to make higher profits. In the early 1980’s General Foods acquired all three companies and formed Kraft Foods Inc. in 1989. â€Å"Kraft is a beloved-billion-dollar brand that spans the continent with many different products from peanut butter to cheese and â€Å"anything† dressings† (Kraft. com, 2013). A fact believed by millions across the world. Many household in North America and Canada believe the â€Å"brand name Kraft† to be a name to be trusted.Kraft was a subsidiary of Mondelez International until 2012, a spun off was done to allow Kraft to focus on the Nort h American and Canadian grocery business leaving Mondelez to focus on the snack business globally. It was a move that was made to allow Kraft to take advantage of its’ â€Å"brand name† with consumers that trust and rely on the products. The mission is â€Å" to be North America’s best food and beverage company. Our company has a great heritage that we’re building into an even greater future† (Kraft. com, 2013). The mission statement is short and sweet, and the company stands behind being the best food and beverage company.This is proven in the annual report that states â€Å"Wal-Mart was responsible for 25% of sales alone† (Kraft. com, 2013). Kraft $18 billion dollar company with sales in food and beverages and the impact that it has had on 98% of households in the United States along with 99% in Canada. Kraft’s customers are wholesalers, supermarket chains, distributors value stores to name a few. The name in itself is worth billion s and Kraft is using it along with the history from the beginning of the 19th Century to show, how it will impact consumers future. Kraft is a beloved-billion-dollar brand that spans the continent with many different products from peanut butter to cheese and â€Å"anything† dressings† (Kraft. com, 2013). All part of the positioning of the products that has the Kraft name that consumers trust and depend on. Kraft realized that it needed to separate itself from Mondelez International in order to increase profits, customer loyalty and shareholders support. The strategic move will help Kraft once again become America’s number one family name. The customer teams interact with operations to effectively manage customer relations.This is achieved by collaborating with customers to develop strategies to introduce new products, define categories, consumer insights, consumer markets, promote products, and price setting. Kraft resources are combined across product lines to e ffectively support retailers, and advice retailers on the strategies to use for products to obtain the highest profit. Acosta and Crossmark are the sales and marketing agencies used by Kraft as extensions to the customer team to provide in-store product placement support, distribution and execution of promotions for products.Innovative thinking and technology has enabled Kraft to reach many of its customers by nature of the Internet. â€Å"It can work for your product or service if you plan and execute an integrated communications plan designed to strengthen and maintain your relationship with the customer† (Muse, 2013). Kraft website is very informative and it has all the information that customers and retailers find informative. It gives insight to the mission, vision, environment, sustainability and history of Kraft.This is all part of marketing as stated by Professor Brauer â€Å"the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution o f goods and services to facilitate exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives†. The product positioning used by Kraft Foods Group, Inc are a combination of competitor positioning, price positioning, quality level positioning and product attributes. Kraft face competition with large national and international companies, and have to differentiate its product from competitors to maintain competitive advantage.The quality of products and innovative growth, brand name, and the loyalty of our consumers for the excellent service we provide help position Kraft products. Our consumers and customers are satisfied with their product preference because they are given the ability to identify the product. â€Å"Product placement is the insertion of commercial products in entertainment products† (Miclot, & Segal, 2012, p. 20). The use of advertising campaigns to market brand names along with promotions for consumers are accomplished by third-party vendors by analy zing buying patterns, trends and the knowledge that we have on consumers to create marketing programs.The goals and objectives for Kraft Food Groups, Inc. are to be able â€Å"to predict, identify and interpret the taste and dietary habits of consumers and to offer products that appeal to consumer preferences† (Kraft. com, 2013). Being able to predict the shifts in consumer taste for short-term, or long-term trends is imperative for Kraft revenue. The different products offered to consumers are also important and Kraft innovative team will ensure the development, introduction, and rapid growth for products.Intellectual property protection for Kraft product and ensuring that the rights of others intellectual property is not being infringed. The perception of Kraft Foods Group, Inc. must be positive by ensuring health implications of products has the highest quality to be accepted by consumers. The sales and market share are affected if consumers are not satisfied and if produc ts are not developed quickly. Ensuring that divestures are paying of our debt and we maintain a great place in the Standard and Poors ratings. Being prepared to keep the comparative advantage if Mondelez should become one of our competitors in the future.Kraft Foods Group, Inc. will ensure that consumer satisfaction are met by offering a diverse set of products with the highest quality to ensure increase revenue for shareholders. Reference Brauer, T. (2013). Marketing. Retrieved April 12th, 2013 from the Colorado Technical University Web site: https://campus. ctuonline. edu/pages/MainFrame. aspx? ContentFrame=/Home/Pages/Default. aspx Kraft Foods Group. (2013). Mission Statement. Retrieved April 12th, 2013, from the World Wide Web: http://www. kraftfoodsgroup. com/About/index. aspx Kraft. com. (2013).Annual Report on Form 10K. Retrieved April 12th, 2013, from the World Wide Web: http://www. kraftfoodsgroup. com/Investor/annual_shareholders_meeting. aspx Miclot, S. & Segal, S. (2012) . Introduction to Marketing. Words of Wisdom LLC. Schaumberg, IL. 1st Ed. Mit. edu. (2013). The History of Kraft Foods, Inc. Retrieved April 12th, 2013 from the World Wide Web: http://web. mit. edu/allanmc/www/kraftfoods. pdf Muse. (2013). Developing Marketing Strategy and Mix. Retrieved April 8th, 2013 from the World Wide Web: https://campus. ctuonline. edu/courses/MKT210/p1/hub1/25351. pdf

Friday, August 30, 2019


Week 7: Suzanne Lacy and Leslie Labowitz, Feminist Media Strategies for Political Performance We live in a media centric world bombarded by the media images twenty four hours a day.   It is so powerful that we often cannot distinguish the ‘reality’ from the mediated reality. Media makes use of images around us to convey this very different articulated meaning. This often interludes with the notion of the people who control the media; which can either be the proprietor or dominant groups through force or coercion that control the opinions. These viewpoints are the factors that determine the news values, of the modern media, which often tend to trivialize or sensationalize the issues, according to the ideological stance. Feminist Media Arts have formed as a resistance to this distorted media views, to convey the ‘undistorted reality’ to the public. It’s more than an information campaign and the same time new mode of protest to decry the ugly stories media told about women. The feminist media work as the activists say ‘has three ultimate purposes: first, to interrupt the incessant flow of images that supports the established social order with alternative ways of thinking and acting; second, to organize and activate viewers (media is not the only, nor necessarily most effective, way to do this); third, to create artful and original imagery that follows in the tradition of fine art, to help viewers see the world in a new way and learn something about themselves in relation to it. ’ The authors in their essay point to the ways to attract the media to their campaign and force them to present their viewpoints. The authors say that ‘to understand how media operates, observe it -with detachment -and be pragmatic. It doesn't matter what you think the media should cover, the object of the game (and it is a game) is to get them to play it your way. Mass media time is not a public service; it is a highly valuable commodity that is purchased by corporations and individuals who promote products, ideas, attitudes and images. The stakes of this game are high, and as artists the best we can hope for is a kind of guerrilla foray into that system.’ Here it would be wise to note the contributions of the Glasgow University Media Research Group (GUMG) and Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS), engaged in research in the process of news production and the relationship between ideology and representation. The research of the GUMG has been very controversial since the publication of Bad News in 1976. Bad News was concerned with the television coverage of industrial relations in 1975. The GUMG’s analysis of television news led it conclude that the viewers had been given a misleading portrayal of industrial disputes, a portrayal that distorted the ‘real’ situation. The descriptions attached to management were such that they persuaded the audience of the rightness of the management position against the demands made by the unions. Thus, it has become the inherent nature of the media to manipulate things. In 1973 Galtung and Ruge analyzed foreign news in newspapers and found that for any event to become a ‘news item’, and therefore considered ‘newsworthy’, it had to pass through a selection process. If it conformed to a particular set of criteria, the news staff judged it newsworthy. Galtunge and Ruge calls those criteria as ‘news values’. The essay tells different methods to persuade the media for the political performance. But the question remains, if the media conforms to certain pre-determined news values, how can these campaigns succeed, despite the systematic efforts by the activists. Week 8: Jesse Drew, The Collective Camcorder in Art and Activism. The essay attempts to portray the role of the video makers’ collectives, in many resistance movements. The invention of the video camcorder has in fact changed the course of history. These movements and the developments in technology when coupled with the ideology of post modernism, took art and activism to new heights. From the efforts of independent artists to the collectives such as Paper Tiger and the Independent Media Center, the revolt has spread to resist the images presented by the mainstream media and culture. So the environment was all set for a departure from the art-video, and experiment something new that reached the people. As the essayist says, television is, after all, at the heart of our popular culture, the culture of the everyday, and dominates the media landscape. Video, when all is said and done, is a form of television, ‘a media device that conveys information. It is natural that video artists cross the boundaries of art and activism, and frequently choose to ‘subvert the message, not just exploit the form. This artistic jujitsu, using the weight of television to fall upon itself, emerged as a popular strategy among video collectives. Increasingly, video artists in the 1980s and 1990s embraced the necessity to reflect on, intervene, and challenge the contested terrain of television, mass media, and popular culture, and leave the art-video aesthetic behind.’ As Strinati called it ‘post modernism is skeptical of any absolute, universal and all embracing claim to knowledge and argues that theories or doctrines which make such claims are increasingly open to criticism, contestation and doubt. The mass media are central to the post modern condition because we now take as real, is to a large extent what media tell us is real. We are bombarded from all sides by cultural signs and images in all aspects of media. According to Baudrillard, we have entered the world of simulacra. These are signs that function as copies or models of real objects or events. In the post-modern era, simulacra no longer present a copy of the world, nor do they produce replicas of reality. Today†¦ reality is structured by codes and models that produce the reality they claim to merely represent.’ From the 1960s onwards there was a revolt against the modernists. The post modernists thought believed in the breakdown of the distinction between culture and society, the break down of the distinction between art and popular culture, the confusion over time and space, and the decline of the meta narratives. The pop art of the 1960s demonstrates this clearly, for example, Andy Warhol presented soup tins and cola bottles as art, as well as challenging the uniqueness of Da Vinci’s portrait of the Mono Lisa by silk screening her image thirty times – Thirty are better than one. In fact post modernism has helped them to drift away from the so called artistic beliefs. In the words of the essayist ‘video artists in the 1980s and 1990s embraced the necessity to reflect on, intervene, and challenge the contested terrain of television, mass media, and popular culture, and leave the art-video aesthetic behind. The convergence of these new political, cultural, social, technological, artistic, and economic developments’ provided the impetus to the establishment of the counter movements like the Paper Television, and subsequently the Independent Media Center. In fact, video art has surpassed all other art forms in interpreting history. Week 9: Carole S. Vance, The War on Culture. The essay follows the great discussion in the world of art whether a self-censorship is inevitable when it comes to sexual images. Vance quotes instances where public ire overlooked the ‘artistic value’ when morality was questioned. Vance says that ‘the fundamentalist attack on images and the art world must be recognized as a systematic part of a right-wing political program to restore traditional social arrangements and reduce diversity. The right wing is deeply committed to symbolic politics, both in using symbols to mobilize public sentiment and in understanding that, because images do stand in for and motivate social change, the arena of representation is a real ground for struggle.’ He says that it is high time that a vigorous defence of art and images should be made. The author has given a new dimension to the culture war. This is not isolated with art or artistic movements. Representation of sexuality in media is more complex than in art, for example, counting the number of times that women appear on the screen because we cannot immediately identify a person’s sexual orientation in the way that we can identify markers of sex and race. Observations by Dyer on gay behavior can be more illustrative here on the representation of sexuality in media. He says ‘a major fact about being gay is that it doesn’t show. There is nothing about gay people’s physiognomy that declares then gay, no equivalent to the biological markers of sex and race. There are signs of gayness, a repertoire of gestures, stances, clothing and even environments that bespeak gayness but these are cultural forms designed to show what the person’s person alone does not show: that he or she is gay’. There are signs of gayness, for example gestures, accents posture and so on, but these markers of sexuality are socially constructed and are both historically and culturally specific. Media texts often rely on stereotypical narratives to indicate that characters in a story line are gay. These may include childlessness, loneliness, a man’s interest in arts or domestic crafts, a woman’s in mechanics or sports. ..each implying a scenario of gay life.’ Both lesbians and gays have been to use Tuchman’s term ‘symbolically annihilated’ by the media in general. The representation of these two groups has been particularly limited on television. The media has been very careful on such sensitive issues, but has not been so. Media has been overtly criticized primarily on its representations, but when coming to issues of morality, media tended to be very much conservative, and there of course has been   a lot of self-censorship. As the essayist says ‘symbolic mobilizations and moral panics often leave in their wake residues of law and policy that remain in force long after the hysteria has subsided, fundamentalist attack on art and images requires a broad and vigorous response that goes beyond appeals to free speech. Free expression is a necessary principle in these debates, because of the steady protection it offers to all images, but it cannot be the only one. To be effective and not defensive, the art community needs to employ its interpretive skills to unmask the modernized rhetoric conservatives use to justify their traditional agenda, as well as to deconstruct the â€Å"difficult† images fundamentalists choose to set their campaigns in motion.’ Artists can of course look at the way media behaves in this respect. Week 10: Kester Grant, A Critical Frame work for Dialogical Practice. Revolt, is word usually associated with the art movements and the biographies of artists themselves. Thus a shift from the galleries to community based installations is a natural course of the artistic history. The author explores these transitions as an inherent revolt that pervaded the artistic community. When the artists themselves began to question the gallery itself as an appropriate site for their work. At a time when scale and the use of natural materials and processes were central concerns in sculpture, the comparatively small physical space of the gallery seemed unduly constraining. Further, the museum, with its fusty, art historical associations, appeared ill equipped to provide a proper Context for works that explored popular culture or quotidian experience. Many artists saw museums, with their boards of wealthy collectors and businesspeople, as bastions of snobbish elitism in an era that demanded a more accessible and egalitarian form of art. There are many ways to escape the museum. In some cases artists chose to work in sites that were empty or depopulated (e.g., Gordon Matta-Clark's â€Å"cuttings† in abandoned buildings, Michael Heizer's or Robert Smithson's land art projects in nearly inaccessible locations), suggesting a certain anxiety about the social interactions that might occur upon venturing beyond sanctioned art institutions. One strand of this work is represented by the agitational, protest-based projects of Guerilla Art Action Group (GAAG), the Black Mask Group, and Henry Flynt in New York. Drawing on the energies of the antiwar movement and the traditions of fluxus performance and siruationism, these groups staged actions outside mainstream cultural institutions (Lincoln Center, Museum of Modern Art, etc.) to call attention to the complicity of these institutions with broader forms of social and political domination.' A different approach, and one more directly related to dialogical practices, emerged in the collaborative projects developed by artists associated with the Woman's Building in Los Angeles during the 1970s. Artists, fueled by political protests against the Reagan administration's foreign policy (especially in Central America), the antiapartheid movement, and nascent AIDS activism, as well as revulsion at the market frenzy surrounding neoexpressionism, with its retardaire embrace of the heroic male painter. A number of artists and arts collectives developed innovative new approaches to public and community-based work during the 1980s and early 1990s. The late 1980s and early 1990S witnessed a gradual convergence between old-school community art traditions and the work of younger practitioners, leading to a more complex set of ideas around public engagement. This movement was also catalyzed by the controversy over Richard Serra's Tilted Arc in the late 1980s, Community art projects are often centered on an exchange between an artist (who is viewed as creatively, intellectually, financially, and institutionally empowered) and a given subject who is defined a priori as in need of empowerment or access to creative/expressive skills. Thus the â€Å"community† in community-based public art often, although not always, refers to individuals marked as culturally, economically, or socially different from the artist. References: 1.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Suzanne Lacy and Leslie Labowitz, Feminist Media Strategies For Political Performance 2.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Jesse Drew, The Collective Camcorder in Art and Activism. 3.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Carole S. Vance, The War on Culture 4.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Kester Grant, A Critical Frame work for Dialogical Practice

Preparation narrative report Essay

My experience in shipboard is very memorable for me, every day your going to treasure it. My experience goes this way, trip to Manila. I’m very excited and when at the port i’m very disappointed because our CoOJT’s from LPU Laguna is some kind of â€Å"maarte† and we met our STO Sir Joepet a very kind STO and I really like him. see more:examples of narrative report When we embark at the ship I feel a little bit nervous but not because of I’m of I’m afraid that the ship is going to sink while underway I’m afraid of what if I can’t do all task that they are going to give us. After fixing our things we go straight to the multi purpose room for our orientation, after that our STO gave us a time to familiarization we proceed to the Island Fiesta where the tourist accommodation eat their meal. We woke up very early and to be exact 2am for us not to be late in our duty. We are 14 so we 7 pairs and my partner is Erika my dear friend.  Our first duty is at the Island Fiesta, its really a Fiesta because of 80% of the passengers ate at Island Fiesta. our time of duty is 10hrs but its s broken sched were in we have a time to rest, in Island Fiesta it measures how long your patience is, how good you are in selling and convincing power sales talk. at first I’m shy but when I find it exciting and fun I really enjoy it I really do my best to call all attentions of the passengers and we have a good sales, after that I was assigned to dining and I do bussing out are first complicated and hard to do but at the end I enjoy even if the other passengers are irritating and annoying. Second duty is housekeeping I really enjoy it especially the trash out things and bed making even though the one casual is snob I still enjoy and in our third duty in Quik Mart we sell snacks and beverages we shout and shout walk and walk, sometimes could by passengers and sometimes the passengers get mad of us because we can’t understand them, and their pronunciations is very hard to understand. Forth duty at the front office I got mad because in whole duty we just stand there after our duty my legs aches. Our fifth duty is at the galley or kitchen I really enjoy it the chefs are very kind they are all approachable and funny they make us laugh the whole duty, and the task they gave us to slice 100 kilos bittergourd and peeling other staff. And food in ship is errr! sometimes tasteless sometimes they are very rich in salt, and the food is  just the same the whole OJT. And the casuals are very nice and kind unlike the other trainees seems they are the manager or supervisor. -Angelica Dominguez HRM 3A â€Å"My Magical Experience on Shipboard† May 14, 2014 was the day when we leave Nueva Ecija and go to Tondo, Manila(North Harbor Pier4) to start our Practicum1 at Ship. On this day also was our first voyage(Manila to Cagayan de Oro). when we already board at the ship, the first thing we do is meet and greet our STO Mr. Joepet Gallego discussed and issued the rules and regulations while were on the ship as well as our schedule and we also had our tour on ship to familiarized every department of the ship. On the next day, May 15, 2014 we already started our first duty at Island Fiesta food court wherein we bussed out, we served etc.,. On my first day on the ship I fell boring, but when the day had been passed I enjoyed every second, minute, hour and days with my co-trainees. I already learned to love what I am doing because they all treated me well especially casuals, they treated us good. We learned a lot from them and we will never forget this experience. I can tell everybody that this experience is magical because it helps me to grow up and become a matured one. -Erica Portacio HRM 3A I was so excited that we experienced being a part of 2GO TRAVEL. it was so nice because all of them the casual, the crew especially to our STO,all of them, they are so very kind. They share us their knowledge and experiences at the ship. During the 1st and last day of our duty we enjoyed being a trainee together with my partner. I learned a lot on this training that you need to treat all passengers good, respect them and show them that they are welcome,and even when passenger say bad words all you can do is smile show to them that looks like nothings happen. I experience in this ship that its hard to become a employee because even they are tired no matter what’you need to welcome them with a beautiful smile. This On-the-job training experienced was very happy because it was my 2nd time to travel on board. I could probably say that I really learned a lot of things there’and i can also say learning is not just seen in the four corners of the room. i am hapy and proud because we finish our duty and it is a great memory to remember in our college life. -Princess Tagaro HRM 3B Having my OJT at 2GO Travel is really enjoy. I’ve learned a lot especially in time management. We duty in the 6o’clock in the morning, so we need to wake up early. We learned how to socialize in other people. I gained more knowledge about my course. I gained more friends because the bonding in our room. And we enjoy to go other places here in the Philippines. When we are on the ship, they taught us about the history, mission and vision of the company, corporate values, vessels, facilities and services of our prescribed logistic company. They also told us about the training rules and regulations, basic house rules and standards like the standards of courtesy and decorum on board, uniform requirements and grooming standards. Also familiarize with the safety alarm, signs and symbols. Most of all, we are very happy because our Shipboard Training Officer is very nice, he take care of us while we are on our duty. And all of the employee in the ship is very friendly. This is v ery memorable experience in my OJT. -Mariel Miranda HRM 3B As an Hrm Student, we were required to take On-the-job training related to our course. I decided to take my Ojt at MVSJP II, a vessel from 2Go travel. I started my Ojt on May 14, 2014.   On our first day on the ship, we took a lecture headed by our STO or Shipboard Training Officer, Mr. Joepet Gallego, then he gave us our  assignments of duties. Our duties revolved on Food and Beverage, Housekeeping, and Front Office Department. On the Food and Beverage Department, I have experienced a lot of works from bussing out dishes, serving foods, setting up the table, and kitchen works. I can say that I’ve learned bunch of things there like the proper way of talking to the customers and to work grace under pressure. On the Housekeeping Department, we cleaned, took out trash, and do â€Å" bed making† on the different accommodations of the ship. I have applied my knowledge on bed making which I have learned from school and made my work easier. Also, on this department, we have assigned to assist passengers to their rooms or accommodations, this was very enjoying because I was able to meet different people. On the Front Office, it was a must to always wear your smile in every situation. I have learned here to always stay calm and polite to the guests whatever their mood was. I have also learned the proper way of grooming myself. The whole Ojt experience for me was very challenging but fun . I have practiced and developed a lot of my skills. As a trainee, I’ve learned to follow strictly on instructions. I improved my self confidence and somehow became more sociable to people. I’ve learned to become flexible, to act professional and be polite at all times. I became aware to treating the customer’s right. I’ve learned to enjoy my work and my workplace, and to enjoy working with the people around me. I can say that I gained a lot of knowledge that I can apply in the near future, and I can say that I chose the right the course for me. 2go Travel’s MVSJP II offers good working environment, which made my experience very enjoying. -Samantha Ellaine Beltran HRM 3B Performs other functions as may be given by my supervisor from time to time and maintain cleanliness and orderliness of assigned at all times, serves meals to the passengers following to the proper food handling procedures and assists in the requisition and issuance of stock from the store room and  performs suggestive selling technique to increase sales and ensures that no unauthorized personnel take out serving from the food on display for sale and free meals and line performs other functions as may be given by the housekeeping supervisor from to time. -Verna Salamanca HRM 3B The first time I saw the ship I felt nervous and excited, when the time the ship is ongoing that night I don’t know what I really feel. The night also I can’t sleep because i feel a little beat scared because of the ship is swaying. The first day of my duty is in Quik mart, my partner is Benjie Cardenas, He is also my partner in my whole OJT in the Saint Pope John Paul II. Every day in my duty we enjoyed together, the casual of the ship and my co trainee from other school. I’m very thankful, blessed and happy for being a part of the shipboard training, 15 days working hard but full of learning and also happiness. A lot of moments once in a lifetime. I can say that my OJT will never forget in my whole life. -Byron Macalinao HRM 2B My on-the-job training experienced is very happy because that is my first time to travel the diff. parts of the Philippines. At first, I felt so excited and also nervous. Our first day in the ship is just an orientation. My first experience in OJT training, me and Byron assigned in Quik Mart. I feel shy and nervous, the we sell clothing, we enjoy it because supposedly turned just like itinerant. Second day in housekeeping also we assigned. We meet Sir Toto, he is the kindest crew, he taught the technique in how to bed making etc. We  experienced to mop a staircase, we also assign ports. It is not easy because it’s too many passengers need to assist but it is okay because we requested the hotel manager assigned. We also experienced the Island Fiesta difficult because too many passengers eating. Also taught proper bus out, I enjoy it even fatigue. We also dropped in Cagayan to buy goods and also flesh out, food trip. The street food in Cagayan was very delicious. Then in Cebu we go to the most important ancient church and the Magellan’s Cross. -Benjie Cardenas HRM 2B During my OJT, I learned how to be a responsible in my own way, on the first day of my OJT, I feel nervous but I’m so excited, I learned how to love, care and respect our customer. Me and my partner experience or encounter some trials or problems but we solve it because we helped each other. This OJT is unforgettable moment and I can say that this is one of the best part of my college life. -Jommel Caba HRM 2A I have a lot of experience at the 2GO Travel Shipboard. First, to entertain guest, if what they need in the front desk. Second, on how to serve the food and to bus out. Third, to sell a product even though it’s expensive to the other guest, but they obligated to but it. Fourth, on how to bed making, to clean the cabin or accommodation. Fifth, at the galley or kitchen, I cut a lot of vegetables and sometimes my own finger ï Å . And of course, the casuals and our STO, their so good to us, they like friends, brothers and sisters to us. But all in all I enjoyed, that was a best experienced I’ve ever feel. I will not forget those experience at 2GO Travel, and I will missed them. THANK YOU!! -Princess Cammille Ferrer HRM 2D At first I feel nervous because I don’t have any idea on what we do while were staying there but then there’s a feeling that I’m so excited to feeling onboard. Then, we met Mr. Joepet Gallego our Shipboard Training Officer (STO). His a nice person, he tours us onboard then he teach us everything onboard, accommodation and other facilities. On my first duty, we assigned at the front office, I feel bored ï Å' but the day past, we all getting haggard, we need to woke up as early as 3am to arranged ourselves for everyday duty. I experience a lot of thing that on shipboard experience. At first, yeah it’s so hard to work especially on Island Fiesta but time after time it’s become easy because we enjoyed what we’re doing. Two weeks was done, I feel bad because I know I will missed my days with other OJT’s, the casuals that teach us how to work easy and most especially I missed my new friends, the person who make me laugh every time even weà ¢â‚¬â„¢re tired we have a time to talk on everyone’s experienced ï Å  -Jaymie Natividad HRM 2D Last May 14, our OJT start. The name of our ship is MV St. Pope John Paul II. During the day of my duties I felt so nervous and excited especially on the first day because I am a first timer so they teach me how to assist guest and serve customer. Then after a long time of being there I learned the diff. ways/ techniques on how to deal with the customer. Having a successfully completed 300 hours of OJT on the ship I learned a lot of things like on how to socialize with other people. I easily control my temper to the customers that are very demanding and not talk nicely. -Aira Jane Canlas HRM 2D During our On the Job Training at MV Saint Pope John Paul II, we were assign at eight different types of areas at the shipboard like Front Office, Quick Mart, Galley, Horizon, Island Fiesta, Cabin, Mega Value and Super Value. Every day we have a rotation for those different areas. First week of our practicum at the shipboard was not easy for me because every day we have to  the different kind of task for that area, so the crew teach us like on housekeeping at the cabin we learned the bed making, towel folding and on different rooms we also do cleaning passengers room, the comfort room and we also do trash out. At the Front Desk , we were great and assist the passengers about their concerned, at Restaurant like Horizon and Island Fiesta we were serving foods for the customers, bass out, washing dishes and cleaning the table. we are also selling foods and beverages at the Quik Mart. All Crew teach us well for what we were doing on their area and they treat us like their family also our STO Mr. Joepet Gallego who rounded every hour to see were doing , check our attendance and care for us when one of us are sick, we met a lot of student in different schools they are our co-trainees. Practicum at MVSJP was unforgettable we were well trained and learn to be organized for every aspect. We learned to be patient and control our temper because we were joining a lot of people every day who have different attitude. For all of that we enhance our confidence, socialization and skills. -Nelissa Paz HRM 2D DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES A. Front Office Apply customer service skills Facilitate registration and rooming-in of guests Handle guest’s requests and inquiries Manage safety deposit boxes and lost and found service Assist in the in-house entertainment services Clean and organize the Front Office B. First Class Dining Saloon/ Horizon Apply customer service skills Carry out food portioning Take guests’ orders Serve guests’ orders Bus out dishes Wash the dishes Clean the First Class Dining Saloon C. Economy Dining Saloon/ Island Fiesta Apply customer service skills Carry out food portioning Carry out sanitation and hygiene standards on Food and Beverage areas Bus out dishes Wash the dishes Clean the Economy Dining Saloon D. Ship Shop/ Quik Mart Apply customer service skills Sell Merchandise Clean Ship Shop Make sales report E. Galley Carry out inspection of finished product prior to servicing to customers Apply proper handling of foods for delivery Clean cutlery, pots and the galley equipment Carry out proper storage procedures like sorting, labelling ,FIFO Method Prepare raw materials for food processing F. Housekeeping- Cabin Apply customer service skills Perform housekeeping inspections Clean guests’ accommodations Clean restrooms in cabins Make-up bed G. Housekeeping-Tatami/ Mega Value Apply customer service skills Perform housekeeping inspections Clean guests’ accommodations Clean public comfort room Clean hallway areas H. Housekeeping-Economy/ Super Value Clean hallway areas Clean lobbies and viewing decks Apply customer service skills Perform housekeeping inspections Clean guests’ accommodations Clean public comfort room

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Staff Planning Paper Term Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Staff Planning - Term Paper Example In the food and retail industry the man power requirement is high and also there is requirement for manpower in manufacturing, operations, customer service, distribution, marketing and accounting. Our current requirement of manpower is on the basis of our new opening in the city. The current manpower requirement is 45 staffs, 15 – customer service, 15 – distribution and marketing, 10 – accounting, 5 – operations (which includes 1 Public Relations staff). For this we require skilled and trained manpower in the respective departments. The selection of a right candidate is the most complicated task in an organization. It is important to recruit the right candidate at the right time and right place and for the right job in order to achieve organizational goal. Staffing is a very important activity in an organization and should be done according to the requirements in the organization. There are various strategies to recruit the appropriate applicants. On behal f of my company when I am selecting the right candidate, I would prefer not only the educational qualification but the person’s experience and moral status to find out whether he is competent to job. â€Å"Employee selection processes are critical to hiring a superior staff† (Employee Selection, 2011). ... For example, various departments have various requirements. For a manager post in ‘Customer care department’ it is better to demand an experience between 3 to 6 years. These years of experience will make candidates expert in this field and he shall have a good idea about the particular department and would be able to take timely decisions according to the decisions provided by the marketing department. For a managerial post in the operations department a person needs to be a good planner and organizer. He should be a good organizer and should be able to manage both men and materials. The manager should bring together all factors of production in a place and he should organize the activities of employees to achieve the organizational goal. The person should have a work experience of 7-8 years in the industry and understand the industry’s competitors and represent the firm to the public. For the PR department it has been advised by our HR representatives and staff t o appoint a female candidate who can represent the firm to the Media. There are several legal compliances, which have to be followed in the recruitment of people in organizations, most of which are related to the employment laws that exists in the state. â€Å"The Department of Labor’s Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP) evaluates employment practices for federal contractors† (Harpe & Mendez 2011). Recruitment is always been an area, where most of the companies backfire in establishing good faith attempt. This often is owing to the lack of communication and direction to recruiters concerning placement goals. Recruitment frequently contains: Formatting the best plans for finding applicants and making gripping job advertisements. Screening the candidate’s resumes and phone

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Learning Team Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) Plan and Essay

Learning Team Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) Plan and Presentation - Essay Example Hastings, an industry expert noted that â€Å"we are becoming like them in doing some originals and they are becoming more like us in creating an on-demand interface like HBO Go," which allows viewers to watch channels on the Web and on mobile and tabulate devices† (Coyle, 2012). This comment however is not without merit because close analysis in the industry shows that online video is going that way. Already, Netflix, the dominant player in the online video industry premiered its first scripted show Lilyhammer and House of Cards which was originally aired on Fox (Coyle, 2012). Hulu also premiered its own documentary show Battleground in February followed by Up to Speed which is a documentary about the ignored monuments of American cities (Coyle, 2012). Even Yahoo which was originally known as a search engine and email provider launched Electric City an animation series produced and voiced by Tom Hanks. Netflix, the industry leader is already operating under the assumption tha t TV and internet is converging with TV networks already experimenting on of going online for its shows to be seen in the internet and handheld mobile devices (Coyle, 2012). ... Branding As a brand, Hulu was previously known to be a free internet movie provider whose content were supported solely by advertisement. Its transition from free internet movie provider to paid subscription albeit first was met with resistance (Sandoval, 2009) was however overcome where Hulu is now known as one of the leading provider of internet videos. While Hulu have made decent strides in the internet video industry, its brand is not yet that established compared to its competitor Yahoo who is capitalizing on its existing audience base. Thus, it is highly recommended that Hulu should diversify and create more original content that is patently produced and owned by the company for the brand to be known among consumers. It is also recommended that the company should advertise itself more to increase the presence of the brand. Hulu’s brand presence should also not be limited in North America but extend it abroad including the rising market in Asia if it intends to go global. Positioning The online video market uses the internet as its platform which is global in reach and cost efficient. Having this reach to anywhere in the world for as long as there is an internet connection spells a different economics for industry players because of the sheer volume of its potential market. Unlike in traditional broadcast TV whose immediate reach is limited to one geographical location such as the United States, internet video can reach other countries simultaneously without having its shows or content syndicated to a third party just for the content to be shown outside the territory of its original location. At present, Hulu is limited to US customers and is not able to other regions particularly in emerging market such as Asia. This limitation is

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

The Western Expansion into South East Asia Essay

The Western Expansion into South East Asia - Essay Example The first phase of Western expansion into South East Asia was characterized by a scenario whereby the Western Imperialists invaded the South East Asia and facilitated a division of the region in relation to territories; this was compared to their division of Africa into various nations. For instance: The British took complete control of the Indonesian Islands while the French took control of Indochina. However, this period was characterized by a scenario where; the French, the Dutch and the British took control of the South East Asia region (Schopper, pg. 29, 2008). On the other hand, during the second phase of the expansion, the United States of America was involved in the act where they acquired the Philippines, the Guam as well as Puerto Rico. Another difference between the First Phase and the Second Phase of Western Expansion into the South East Asia occurred into the sense that the First Phase was not characterized by incidences of conflict: The Dutch, the French and the British , expanded their colonial effects into various parts of the South East Region without undergoing any conflict with the native inhabitants of these region or even other colonialists. However, during the second phase of the expansion, a series of conflict occurred frequently majorly due to resistance among the natives for instance: The United States of America being one of the Colonialists that acquired the Philippines underwent a fierce battle with the Filipino Nationalists in the year 1899.

Monday, August 26, 2019

Assignment 3 Open Book Costing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Assignment 3 Open Book Costing - Essay Example Where as the relationship has to be regarded as long term and should be built on mutual trust. The system of open book costing is simple that is suppliers work in partnership with retailers so that costs can be condensed to benefit both parties. Open Book Costing (OBC) can be viewed as the authentic test of a tactical relationship. Open Book Costing is defined, in a partnering arrangement, as â€Å"openness, effective communication, close collaboration and cooperation, trust, honesty, transparency, sharing and mutual benefit† (The Chartered Institute of Purchasing & Supply, CIPS). CIPS thinks that the Open Book Costing is a useful tool to arrive at a greatest advantage from a partnering relationship of both buyer and seller. The purpose of this idea is to bring mutual benefit for both retailer and supplier. Supply and purchasing management use several approaches in dealing with suppliers for the supply of goods and services. One of these is the partnering system which is otherwise known as collaboration, which uses the open book costing. There are several structures of partnering agreement that could work well in buyer-supplier relations. The concept of OBC is effortlessly said but in real practice, discussions around it can harshly challenge a relationship. For instance disagreement with regard to important efficient parameters like output rate and labour requirements may prevail and the relationship is in danger of being tarnished. The parametric quantity may be comprehended as too cautious by the buyer or too motivated by the seller. The buyer is most likely to use this favoured information to attempt to force down the seller’s profit margin or to allege him of all the gains of a cost reduction scheme to himself. Open Book Costing emphasises the faith and dedication already present in the relationship. It elucidates the cost, and therefore the cost and impact of

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Dilemmas of Leadership in Business Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Dilemmas of Leadership in Business - Assignment Example J. et al. 2004:15) declares that leadership is the capability of any individual to marshal an organization’s members towards effectiveness and success by motivation and influence. It marks an influence relationship with the intention of attaining real outcomes and changes of mutual interest. In contemporary times, influential cross-border leadership is imperative, and this is measurable in terms of cultural adaptability, emotional and cultural intelligence as a factor of self-development in a leader, which impacts success through leadership at an extensive scale in the highly globalized world of modern times. Emotional intelligence (EI) pertains to the notion that the proficiency of leaders to comprehend their individual emotions, and the emotions of people in their working environment is an expedient tool to achieve better business performance. It is claimed that the core competencies of modern and historical leaders is not just a function of EI, but it also incorporates Cult ural Intelligence (CQ) into the equation. CQ is an individual’s ability to adapt to new cultural environment and forego any cultural shock attributable to unfamiliar settings in a cultural context. With regards to assessing the EI and CQ on the developmental scale, many tests have been developed: Cross-cultural adaptability inventory (Kelley C., and Meyers J., 1995), paper-and-pencil inventory, behavioral investment centres, intercultural communication inventory tests (Earley and Peterson 2004) etc. Goleman (2002) claims that four aspects of EI: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and relationship management, add to the critical set of skills required for profound leadership. He further asserts that self-awareness facilitates empathy and enables self-management. These two combined are a gateway to emotionally intelligent leadership built up on the foundation of self-awareness. The EI in itself is not a distinctive form of intelligence, but the application of int elligence to a certain domain of life- the emotions. The concept has an extensively wide base and therefore its measurement is not scientifically reliable, however its paramount significance can not be doubted with regards to leadership in the current era. Cultural Intelligence comprises of three rudimentary components: cognitive, motivational and behavioral. In light of these, authors of the subject suggest a CQ learning and educational model based on three subjects: meta-cognitive (learning different strategies to enable cultural sense making), motivation (cultural empathy and self efficacy, which is directly proportional to self-esteem of an individual), and behavior (approved behavior in a cultural setting and mimicry). The current issue of contemporary times is an ever increasing demand for global effective leaders, who when measured on the scale of effectiveness must possess the required combination of knowledge measured in terms of EI and CQ for it is necessary for any achiev ement oriented leader in the sphere of local or international relations. However, the supply of global leaders and managers today having adequate EI and CQ is critically very low. Globalization is regarded as the master concept of the modern times, because we live in an era which is marked by dramatic industrialization and interaction between nation states. Extensive globalization indicates that the success of Multinational Corporations (MNCs) and Small and Medium

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Global Financialization Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 2

Global Financialization - Essay Example In fact, massive inflows of capital followed by sharp and sudden reversals of capital flow result in crises of exchange rates that have characterized developing and emerging nations (Stiglitz 1081). The macroeconomic troubles stirred by volatile flows of capital have been acutely felt in developing and emerging countries such as Turkey and Argentina in 2001 and the late 90s South East Asia financial crisis, which were all related to flow of capital. These countries suffered from sharp declines in real GDP. A particular reason that leads to rates of exchange having such a significant effect is because, in liberalization and financialization of global markets, it is profitable to be involved in interest arbitrage, which means that one borrows from a specific currency and lends or invests in other currencies, also referred to as carrying trade (Rodrik 1). For example, if interest rates of the Turkish Lira were higher compared to those of the Euro, taking rates of exchange to be stable, it tempts to borrow in Euro credit and then invest or even lend in Turkish Lira. This implies that liabilities, as well as assets, will be in currencies of different countries. Therefore, abrupt realignments in rates of exchange could end up having disastrous effects on the balance sheets of banks or organizations. In addition, capital flow liberalization also lets developing nations accrue current account deficits for a longer time, and at a higher level than they could be during the reign of the Bretton Woods organizations. Financial globalization and liberalization have led to an increase of potential difference in development among countries if the global market financial markets retain their stability and calmness. The revaluation, typically, of financial markets has been accompanied by abrupt reversals of capital flow, as well as crises in exchange rates, all of which show that global financialization is not good for developing countries (Rodrik 1). Governments play a crucial role in the evolution of global financialization, as well as its effects on individual countries and their development. All governments at national level possess a specific responsibility to ensure security and stability of the domestic financial, banking, and monetary systems, which are vital to any economy’s functions. The vulnerable nature of financial and banking systems to crises, failure of markets and instability has virtually produced regulatory authorities and central banks that are aimed at protecting their social interests, as well as for the mediation of their countries’ interactions with international financial markets (Doyran 32). Effective stability and functioning of the financial and monetary systems have become a fundamental requirement as far as development is concerned, which is only achievable via the effective actions of nations.

Friday, August 23, 2019

MDCM IT Strategy. Case study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

MDCM IT Strategy. Case study - Essay Example Consolidation in the medical device industry had also slowed market growth. As a result MDCM had shifted its growth strategy from geographical reach to diversification through acquisitions. The type of business that MDCM operated in was contract manufacturing. In this business, the manufacturer had pioneered the process of creating close partnership arrangement with customers to maximize their success with MDCM’s products. MDCM had decades of experience in the business. However consolidation in the industry had given greater bargaining power to the customers so that the company could not price competitively. MDCM’s competitive position was further weakened by a lack of cost control. There was lack of coordination among departments, suppliers, logistics so that expected synergy gains from the acquisitions could not be realized. By focusing upon acquisitions, MDCM was in effect implementing the strategy of diversification into related products. This made the company more globally diversified, enabling it to better serve large customers who were also becoming globally diversified. However MDCM’s operating and profit margins continued to fall in a compe titive market. Because MDCM operated in an industry which was consolidating and which had more efficient competitors, the company continued to decline in market share and profits. As mentioned in the case, even though MDCM was the largest company in the industry, it had the worst operating and profit margins. ... The overall strategic goals of this firm at this time are to implement operational and cost improvements and to focus on IT integration. The two goals are related since operational and cost improvements can be realized from IT integration. As indicated in the case, the management was facing problems with the cost structure, sales and marketing and production scheduling. These problems could be addressed by the right IT implementation plan. The implementation plan should be aligned to the overall strategic goals of the firm which are to implement operational and cost improvements in medical device contract manufacturing. The company had recently lost its competitive advantage because of its high internal costs which hampered the company’s ability to price competitively against smaller, more efficient rivals. As a result sales and profits continued to decline. Therefore the top priorities at this time were to undertake a project related to IT strategy synchronization that would lead to improved information flow which would facilitate operational and cost improvements. The industry had gone through a consolidation process which reduced the number of customers. Because there were fewer larger customers, they had more pricing power. Therefore, in order to remain competitive, MDCM would have to access more information about its business processes, thus enabling the managers to take corrective action which would turn around sales and profits. The critical success factor at this time was tight coordination between the different business functions. Traditionally the strategic focus of the company had been to locate close to the customer. However this strategic focus had been changed as a result of the Horizon 2000

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Euthanasia Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 5

Euthanasia - Essay Example This paper analyses, critically, the arguments for and against Euthanasia. In the conclusion, I have given a personal opinion on my view of Euthanasia. The following are the main pros and cons of Euthanasia. One of the main arguments advanced in support of Euthanasia is the argument that Euthanasia is a morally right action because human beings have a right to self-determination, and for that reason, they should be allowed to choose their own fate (, n.d.). The proponents of Euthanasia contend that since human beings have the right to self-determination, denying euthanasia to the terminally sick patients who need and request for it is immoral and a violation of their right to self-determination. In law the issue of self-determination in regard to Euthanasia is a controversial issue, especially in the United States. Various courts in the United States have interpreted this issue differently. The following case demonstrates how the issue of self-determination in the United States constitution is a controversial issue. Year 1975, the 21 year old Karen Ann Quinlan was admitted in a hospital in a comma. The doctors at the hospital later declared Quinlan to be in a persistent vegetative state. After spending five months on a ventilator, Quinlan’s parents requested that the ventilator be removed and that Quinlan be allowed to die peacefully. The doctors at the hospital, however, objected to Quinlan parents’ requests, and this made the parents to bring the matter to a New Jersey Superior Court. In the ruling, to the disappointment of Quinlan’s parents, the New Jersey Superior Court denied the request of Quinlan’s parents. When Quinlan’s parents, however, took the matter to the New Jersey Supreme court, the Supreme Court reversed the ruling of the Superior Court and ruled that Quinlan’s constitutional right to privacy included her right to be removed from the

Physics Lab Safety Booklet Example Essay Example for Free

Physics Lab Safety Booklet Example Essay Why Is Laboratory Safety Important? Lab Safety is important because a safe work space, is a productive work space. When everyone follows all rules and regulations the assignment will get done and no one will be hurt. Some of the chemicals and substances can be harmful if used incorrectly, so there all certain ways we protect ourselves. Lab Safety Symbols This is the fire symbol, it means something is flammable. So keep it away from flames or it will catch on fire. This symbol is for toxic or poisonous chemicals. Safety procedures are to protect you and others also in the lab. Safety Symbols continued The symbol below means that a chemical or substance is corrosive, which means that is can cause visible disintegration of human tissue or any other substances or materials it may come in contact with. These two symbols mean that a substance or a chemical have dangerous fumes. Those fumes will harm you if inhaled. These three symbols are the different types of radioactive symbols you might see. Radioactive waste can harm both humans and the environment, so handle with care. Lab Safety Equipment These are goggles, they are use to protect the eyes. Gloves (below) are used to protect the hands. ï ¿ ¼Safety Equipment cont. This is a lab apron. It is used to protect the clothing from spills, chemicals or substances that might go through the clothes and damage skin. ï ¿ ¼ Measuring Instruments This is a triple beam balance. It measures mass in grams. This is a graduated cylinder, it measures volume in milliliters. This is a ruler, it measures length in both centimeters and inches. ï ¿ ¼Safety Rules This is a fire blanket, it is used when a persons hair or article of clothing catches fire. This is a safety shower with an eye wash station built in. If you ever get anything in your eyes, go swiftly over to the eye wash station , turn in on and hold open your eyelids and let keep using it for 15 to 20 minutes.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

The History Of Visual Effects

The History Of Visual Effects The moving images has always enthralled and surprised its viewers. Since the first ever video of horse running to prove his animal feature to the latest video featuring Akon or Eminem, or to the latest film avatar which took 10 long years for its completeion, this medium of Moving Visual Images has come a long way and still far more to go and explore. The most influencial among these moving images is the medium of cinema. I has a strong hold on people, they never get tired of movies. This is the key thought behind movie making . If the people are showing any hesitation towards the movies, the makers would soon come up with new ideas and technologies. If the Improvement is in the field of technologies it would certainly be containing the word Effects in its priority list. Effects is the most important and key part behind the film Industry now. More than 90% of films releasing today has a Special or Visual Effects sequence in some part of its running time or may be the entire movie would be VFX showcase. The first film screening was done on December 28, 1895 showing 10 short films of 20 minutes in total was held in the basement launch of the Grand cafe on the boulvard des capucines in Paris, and the inventers of this technique of capturing and projection of sequence of images were by the Lumere Brothers. And now A single film is releasing world wide on the same day in more than thousands of theatres. The growth of the Industry was in tick of a time but this tick of time has a lot more to say. Louis Lumiere once said about cinema Cinema is an invention without any future. He might have been right when he made this statement, The period of invention, Invention of usabel electricity, steel and petroleum products which inturn lead to the second Industrial revolution. But that statemnt of Louis Lumiere would be a joke at this poit of time, In this era of technologies and development, A period when manpower is questioned by the machines. Experiments were the key to improvement, innovation and inventions. The technologies dint come up by itself There is a lot of hard work and lot of man power behind it. A small brief of the eveolution of Effects. Special Effects Smokes and mirrors were the first visual effects tool used in the begning of movie making to create Effects. The smoke and mirrors with the help of tricky camera techniques startled the audience. This was achiedved with the help of human inablity of vision, that they will see sequence of images as they are in motion and not as single images. These was scientifically called as the persistance of vision. These simple techniques were produced within the camera, such as simple jump-cuts or superimpositions, or were created by using miniatures, back projection, or matte paintings. The first ever Special effect used ina motion picture is called Stop trickand It was the first type of photographic trick in motion pictures. The trick is simple,Executed by Alfred Clarke in 1895. While filming a reenactment of the beheading of Mary, Queen of Scots, Clark instructed an actor to step up to the block in Marys costume. As the executioner brought the axe above his head, Clarke stopped the camera, had all of the actors freeze, and had the person playing Mary step off the set. He placed a Mary dummy in the actors place, restarted filming, and allowed the executioner to bring the axe down, severing the dummys head. George Melies a French magician is a personality whom I shouldnt miss when speaking about the History of Special Effects. He is also reffered as the Cinemagician. George melies accidently discovered the same Stop trick. While he was filming in the streets of paris, his camera got jammed. And later when it was screened He found that Stop Trick has caused a truck turn into a hearse, Pedestrians to change direction and men turned into women. Melies the stage manager at the theatre Robert-Houdin, was inspired to develop na series of more than 500 short film, between 1896 and 1914, in the process developing or inventing such techniques as multiple exposures, time-lapse photography, dissolves, and hand painted color. Because of his ability to seemingly manipulate and transform reality with the cinematography. He used this trick when shooting his eight-and-a-half minute famous Nickelodeon based on Jules Vernes From the Earth to the Moon. This video featured a combination of live action andanimation, and also incorporated extensive miniature and matte painting work. Introduction To Visual Effects Visual Effects or VFX is a subsidiary part of special effects. What is VFX Visual Effects (Visual FX/VFX) is the various process by which imagery is created or manipulated outside the context of a live action footage. Visual Effects involve the Integration of computer generated Realistic Environments, characters or Effects which is dangerous, costly or simply impossible to capture on film. The technique of Visual Effects is now commonly used in Big Budget films as the generation is a costly business. The Availability of affordable Compositing and 3D softwares creates a wave among the amateur film makers to include these techniques in their films too. Different Techniques Involved or Integrated with Visual Effects Animation: Animation is the technique by which images which would be 2D or 3D artwork or model position shown in a sequence such that it creates an illusion of motion. This is due to the optical illusion of motion which is in turn by the persistence of vision of our eye. The most common method of presenting this would be motion picture or a video program although there are plenty of other methods. Chroma key: Chroma key compositing or Chroma Keying is the technique of compositing two images or frames together in which a color or small color range from the above image is removed or made transparent revealing the image behind it. This technique is also referred as Colr keying or Color separation overlay green screen or Blue screen. Compositing: Compositing is the combining of of visual elements from various sources to one image, creating an illusion that all these elements are the part of the same scene. Live action shooting for various compositing are called, chroma keying, green screen, blue screen etc. All compositing involves replacing one part of an image with another part from another image. In the digital method of compositing the software command designates a narrowly defined color as part of an image to be replaced. Then every pixel from the source image is replaced by the pixel from the image which has to be in place. That should be aligned in such a way that the whole composition should look like a single image or frame. Computer Generated Imagery: Computer Generated Imagery or CGI is the application in the field of Computer graphics or more precisely 3D computer graphics to special Effects in films, Television programs, Commercials etc. CGI is used for films because its controllable than the other physical processes like Constructing miniatures or calling Extras for the crowd sequence. And the advantage CGI has over other mediums is that It can be controlled and edited by one individual/CG Artist without the help of Actors, Expensive set pieces or Costly props. Matte Painting: A matte Painting is the painted representation of a landscape, Set or Distant location that allows filmmakers to create an illusion which would rather be very much expensive, impossible to visit or shoot on a live action film. During the course of time since its first usage, The artist have used and experimented different techniques on matte painting. But the quality of output of matte painting is seamless and is directly proportional to the skill level of the artist and his imaginations. Rear Projections: Rear Projection is an in- Camera special effect technique used in film productions to combine foreground performance with pre-filmed backgrounds. It was widely used and still being used to show background motions like driving or a distant Background motion. The projector is placed behind the screen which is called plate and casts a sequence of images on to the screen. As the projector is behind the screen a reversed image is casted which makes the image looks fainted or washed out . A large area of space is occupied for this kind of projections as the projector is kept at a distance from back of the screen. Since the screen is called plate, Roll Plate was the command given to the crew to roll the projector according to the time. Front Projection Effect: In contrast to rear projection, in front projection the background image is projected onto both the performer and a highly reflective background screen, with the result that projected image is bounced off the screen and into the lens of a camera. This is achieved by having a screen made of a retroreflective material such as Scotchlite, a product of the 3M company that is also used to make screens for movie theaters. Such material is made from millions of glass beads affixed to the surface of the cloth. These glass beads reflect light back only in the direction in which it came, far more efficiently than any common surface. The actor (or subject) performs in front of the reflective screen with a movie camera pointing straight at him. Just in front of the camera is a two-way mirror angled at 45 degrees. At 90 degrees to the camera is a projector which projects an image of the background onto the mirror which reflects the image onto the performer and the highly reflective screen; the image is too faint to appear on the actor but shows up clearly on the screen. In this way, the actor becomes his own matte. The combined image is transmitted through the mirror and recorded by the camera. Schà ¼fftan process: Its a special Effect technique used in the first of 20th century before being completely replaced by traveling matte. This process is named after its Inventor Eugen Schà ¼fftan(1893-1977)Schà ¼fftan placed a plate of glass at a 45-degree angle between the camera and the miniature buildings. He used the cameras viewfinder to trace an outline of the area into which the actors would later be inserted onto the glass. This outline was transferred onto a mirror and all the reflective surface that fell outside the outline was removed, leaving transparent glass. When the mirror was placed in the same position as the original plate of glass, the reflective part blocked a portion of the miniature building behind it and also reflected the stage behind the camera. The actors were placed several meters away from the mirror so that when they were reflected in the mirror, they would appear at the right size. . Visual special effects techniques in rough order of invention practical effects in-camera effects miniature effects Schà ¼fftan process matte paintings rotoscoping Dolly zoom optical effects travelling matte aerial image effects optical printing bluescreen prosthetic makeup effects motion control photography Audio-Animatronic models digital compositing wire removal morphing match moving Virtual cinematography Landmark movies 2001: A Space Odyssey (Pioneer in spaceships models) Amadeus (Old age stipple, era effects) The Birds (Male/Female Matte developments) Buddy (Animatronics) The Day After Tomorrow (Prolonged digital shots, playing with weather effects) Independence Day (Digital effects combined with small-scale models) Jurassic Park (Large animatronics, creating creatures from scratch) King Kong (2005) (Motion Capture) The Lord of the Rings film Trilogy (Created Massive Software, prosthetic work, digital effects, motion capture) The Matrix Trilogy (Bullet Time) Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Mans Chest (Motion capture from a 2D image) Star Wars (Creation of original, practical effects, destruction effects, pioneer in spaceships models) Superman (Human flight) Terminator 2: Judgment Day (3-Dimensional Morphing and 3D Human Body) The Terminator (Digital effects) Titanic (Model work, computer generated water, motion capture) Toy Story (Complete Computer Animation) Tron (Computer animation, virtual sets) The History Of Indian Cinema History Of Indian Cinema The first ever screening In India was held in Bombay at Wastons Hotel in the year 1886, six soundless short films were screened by Lumiere Cinematographe just on year after the first ever screening by Lumiere Brotheres in Paris. Soon after, Hiralal Sen and Bhatavdekar started making films in Culcutta(now Kolkatta) and Bombay(now Mumbai) respectively. First acuality films were made by Bhatavdekar in 1899 just like the Lumieres did. Thogh there were many efforts in making feature films since the introduction of Film in India, The first feature film Raja Harishchandra was made in the year 1913 by Dada Sahab Phalke, He was later known as the Father of Indian Cinema.By the year 1920, The begning of Indian film Industry was started and started with 27 films per year, reached 207 films in 1931 and today India makes about more than 1000 films per year. A world record has been set in 2009 by producing about 2961 films on cellulloid which includes a staggering figure of 1288 feature films. Visual FX in India The History of Indian Visual FX dates back to the silent era, At the same time as hollywood films were experimenting and Executing VFX, India has also closely followed and caught on. Dada Saheb Phalkes silent movie Kalimardhan in the year 1919 is one example wit such work. Later came movies like Padhala Bhairavi and Mya Bazar which took VFX to greater heights. The Golden Era(1940-1960) Of Indian Cinema: This was the era when Indian films where well acclaimed and Appreciated along with the growth of world Cinema. The films were treated well in the Industry. This nourished and helped the Indian film makers to Explore and Experiment both technically and story base. There were many experiment in the field of cinematography innovating new techniques and experimenting with new Ideas. Cinematographers like Subrata Mitra were pioneers in that. His techniques had an Impact on the cinematography of the world cinema. His techniques included Bouncing the light thats using the daylight on the sets. Then came the major twist, which has made the Indian films to lack behind in Techniques. The reason are many, But two main reasons would be The usage of computer generated technologies in world cinema where Indian filmmakers were drawn back, as the Indian Scientists and technologist may ot have helped the field of cinema in improving its quality. The second reason would be, Eventhough the scientists and Technologists were keen in helping the Indian film for producing the special effect techniques, Indian film makers might have more preferred creating Masala Movies( A colocial word used for the Typical Indian Commercial Film) fledged with Darama, songs, Tragedy and all. As the medium of cinema is a Pure process of Business through Entertainment. Even then Few movies were released in Indian Cinema with magnificant Films with special Effects, Makers being the pure lovers of Cinema, and whoe adored the growth of world Cinema. The 90s: Begning of The Visual FX The 90s has to be considered as the milestone decade for the Visual FX Of Indian Cinema. This decade show us first that Indian Cinema has the strengh and courage to Compete with the world cinema in Visual FX. The first live action movie incorporating animation in India was O Faby in 1993, A malayalam feature film. Then Came a film in the year 1994 where the lead Actor was dancing with his heroine for the song Mukkala Mukkabula but the surprise was that only his clothes were visible and his body parts were just blank or Invisible. This was the first time when Indian Audience as well as the makers were experiencing such a technique in an Indian cinema. The Indian Government had been too impressed with this dance I think, From the next year onwards, 1995 The rajat Kamal or Silver Lotus for Special Effects have been Included in the National Film Awards. The first award went to none other than the creator of this piece of Effect Mr. Venky. Venky has shown his talent in the 1993 released film Gentleman and did some charisma in the movie, and then he came to work in Kadhalan and grabbed the award. But it would be too Unfair If I dont mention the Director Both the films, which is the same person, who has shooked each and everyfilm maker in the country with his love toward Visual FX, with his love towards Cinema, with his belive in the Visual FX, and shooked the whole country with his latest film Endhiran/Robo( 2010), Simple but fledged with Innovative ideas Mr. Shankar.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Research Into Job Satisfaction Among Nurses

Research Into Job Satisfaction Among Nurses Nurses in most healthcare facilities have some of the highest levels of direct patient contact of any employees. Nursing force plays an essential role in achieving organizational goals and providing high quality care to the community. Hospitals are important health care and social system where nurses are the cornerstones for their effectiveness and efficiency. Many of the nurses even take on the responsibilities of the medical supervisors or the doctors in command, and this makes them a very important part of the medical system (International Council for Nurses, 200) Devoid of people, organizations can not reach their goals. (Drucker, 1999). High nurse turnover can impact negatively on an organizations capacity to meet patient needs and provide quality care (Gray and Phillips, 1996; Tai et al., 1998; Shields and Ward, 2001). At the nursing unit level, high turnover affects the morale of nurses and the productivity of those who remain to provide care while new staff members are hired and orientated (Cavanagh and Cof ¬Ã‚ n, 1992; Sofer, 1995). Jones (1990a, b) de ¬Ã‚ ned nursing turnover as the process whereby nursing staff leave or transfer within the hospital setting. This de ¬Ã‚ nition Includes intentional and unintentional, as well as internal and external turnovers. Voluntary and involuntary turnovers are not always distinguished in studies because costs are incurred regardless of whether staffs resign or are requested to leave. According to L.J. Hayes et al(2008) turnover is a product of job satisfaction and commitment and can lead to nursing shortage. Nursing shortage and high rates of nurses turnover has become a prevalent global issue (Kingman, 2001). The nursing shortage has a vital effect on healthcare system because of its negative impact on both preventive and curative care. For example, in developing countries, fewer nurses have been available for providing immunizations and prenatal care. Hospitals in many industrialized and developing countries have been forced to close units when nursing staff has not been available (Oulton, 2006,cited in sianze,Malvarez (2008).Shortages can be a symptom of low job satisfaction, poor management and lack of organizational support (Zurn et al., 2005). Shortages are resulting in heavy workload, which is a precursor to job stress, and burnout, which have also been linked to low job satisfaction. Nurses job satisfaction is an elusive concept, which is defined within its extrinsic and intrinsic values (Cowin, 2002 cited in Masroor A.M., Fakir M. J 2010). Job satisfaction is an essential elemen t that has strong effects on patient safety, productivity, and performance, quality of care, retention and turnover (Cavanagh and Cof ¬Ã‚ n, 1992; Blegen, 1993; Irvine and Evans, 1995, Murrells, T., et al, 2007). Job satisfaction refers to overall positive feelings towards a job. It is defined as, Pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job experiences (Locke, 1976). What in terms of job satisfaction counts the attitude of an employee towards his job? Attitude is a point of view of an individual towards an object. The object may be anything, such as, an organization, a manager, a colleague or a job. What is important about attitude is that: people make decisions based on their attitudes. When employees are satisfied with their job, they tend to stay in their job. On the other hand, people who are not satisfied with their job tend to take a decision of quitting their workplace. Workers with positive attitude are likely to be productive and effective in the organization whereas those with negative attitude have poor performance and ultimately less productive (Abu Ajamieh, A. R, 1996). Satisfied employees tend to be more productive, creative, and committed to their industry, and recent studies have shown a direct relation between staff satisfaction and patient satisfaction in health care organizations (Al-Aameri, 2000). The entire employee wants to be satisfied at their job no matter what activities they are engaged in or have the will to carry out. The significance of job satisfaction arises from the fact that the nurses whom job satisfaction is positive are not only pleased and happy within themselves but also affecting the quantitative and qualitative outcomes of the health organization in a positive way. Quite the opposite, the dissatisfied nurses are not peacefully pleasured resulting in poor performance, increased absenteeism, tardiness, burnout, turnover and qualitative and quantitative negative outcomes for the health care system. Nurses shortage and Job satisfaction should be of primary concerns to the health managers because nurses take the responsibility of many positions in the hospital and their turnover would have great impact on the employers and the patients as well. The shortage of nurses has been well recognized and extended to the long-term care services (Fletcher, 2001; Mark, 2002; Mitchell, 2003) Cited in MH 2008. In response population growth, health care organizations are facing problems in finding and keeping skillful nurses (Gohen Van Nostrand, 1995; Kassner Bertel, 1998). High nurse turnover and vacancy rates are affecting access to health care (Best Thurston, 2004) Cited in MH 2008. Continuously hiring new staff is costly and recurrent turnover influence the morality of nurses and vitiates patient care (Sofie, Belzar, Young, 2003) Cited in MH 2008. The increasing rate of turnover resulted in unfavorable physical and emotional effects on nursing home residents, leading to a greater incide nce of falls, medication errors, fear and anxiety, and feelings of hopelessness (Best Thurston, 2004; Sofie, Belza, Young, 2003). Background and significance: There are five governmental schools of nursing spread overall the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Three of them are called Institutes of Nursing (IONs) governed by the Ministry of Health (MOH). The IONs offer a Diploma degree and cover the Northern Emirates. While the Higher College of Technology and the Institute of Applied Technology which are controlled by the Ministry of Higher Education in both of Abu-Dhabi and Al-Ain graduate nurses holding Bachelors degree of nursing science. The period of study in the IONs is three years. All of the graduates are female Emiratis and expatriates and the number of graduates in the northern emirates is relatively higher that of Abu-Dhabi and Al-Ain cities. Despite all such number of graduates, the UAE like the other countries is in severe shortage of nurses related to high rate of turnover. The UAE is need for 30,000 nurses and midwives, only 23000 are available which means that the shortage is 7000 (Underwood, M, 2010). According to the MOH-secretary of the Nursing and Midwifery Council, low remuneration, low status and limited career development are all factors influencing the shortage. Therefore, the UAE must hire up to 25 to 30 per cent; 7000 nurses to overcome the shortage of nursing staff. Dr. Rifaai (2010), the Head of Federal Nursing Department, referred the shortage of nurses and midwives in the UAE to the perceived low status of the profession. The Emirati nurses account only 4% of the total population (UAE-MOH, cited Underwood, M, 2010) which does not run in parallel with the demographics population of the country. The serious nursing shortage has prompted the MOH-UAE to start a national study to identify the factors that could lead to a better workplace at the governmental hospitals. This study was in response to a previous pilot study funded by the Ministry of Health called Thinking Magnetism which revealed that low wages and Lack of autonomy to make decisions are the primary reason for nurses dissatisfaction (Khaleej Times, 23 November 2009). The outcomes of the study drove the government to start looking carefully after these phenomena particularly when the pilot study, the magnet indicators showed very low scores for ministry hospitals as compared with USA magnet hospitals. The indicators studied: nursing contribution in hospital affairs; nursing foundation of quality of care; ability of nurse manager, leadership; staffing; resources; and nurse-physician relationship. Among the 14 urgent requirements identified, the pilot study recommended: part-time jobs; flexible recruitment; promotion p olicies, and competitive salaries. Involvement in decision-making and encouragement of a healthy nurse-physician relationship was also suggested. Expatriate nurses working in the government hospitals demanded equal treatment with UAE nationals and placements according to qualifications. Suliman, A.B., (2006), stated in his study that staffs perceptions of fairness are largely based on comparison. For instance, employee may compare their payment, working hours, and incentives. If the comparison is positive, they are likely to feel positive toward their organization. Conversely, if the result is negative, they will react negatively toward the system and may challenge and oppose it. Consequently, the employees may intent to quit their job. The finding of this study may help the health care managers and policy makers to develop and institutionalize targeted nurse recruitment and retention strategies by taking into consideration the predictors of nurses dissatisfaction and turnover. The significance of the problem and the absence of related researches and statistical data about the level of nurses satisfaction, and the factors that contribute to turnover give the urge to study these phenomena. Statement of Purpose: The aim of this research is to : Explore the relationship between job dissatisfaction and turnover among registered nurses in the governmental hospitals of UAE. Find relationship between individual/ demographic variables and job satisfaction among the registered nurses in the Governmental hospital in the UAE. Give the nursing managers in the UAE hospitals clear indicators towards improving the nurses job satisfaction, retention and reduction of turnover rates. Research questions: This research is intended to answer the following questions: What is the relation between dissatisfaction factors to turnover? What is the relationship between demographic variables and job satisfaction? Literature Review Theoretical Framework: Job satisfaction is multi-faceted with many definitions and theoretical frames. According to Spector (1997), Job satisfaction is the most important variable that is frequently studied in organizational behavior research. In addition, the fundamental variable in both research and theory of organizational phenomena were ranging from job design to supervision. Moreover, the traditional model of job satisfaction focuses on all the feelings that an individual has about his/her job. Yet, being satisfied or dissatisfied does not rely on the type of the job only but also on the expectations of the individuals from their job. In another definition, Job satisfaction is defined as the degree to which employees enjoy their jobs (McCloskey McCain 1987). Job satisfaction is an enjoyable affecting state resulting from the consideration of ones job (Locke, 1976 cited in Brief, A. P., Weiss, H. M. (2001) cited in Wikipedia), an emotional response to ones job (Cranny, Smith Stone, 1992 cited in Weiss, H. M. (2002) cited in Wikipedia) and an sentiment towards ones job (Brief, 1998 cited in Weiss, H. M. (2002) cited in Wikipedia). Researchers usually relate job satisfaction to motivation. Motivation can be defined as an internal process that activates, guides and maintains behaviour over time (Pintrich 2003; Schunk 2000).There are several theories of motivation .The most important theories are Maslows hierarchy of needs, Hertzbergs dual factor theory, and. Vrooms expectancy theory. Unfortunately, none of these theories have gained adequate support or shown to be valid as job satisfiers. Nevertheless, they are based on satisfying human needs that address motivation. Maslows theory1954: Maslow suggested a hierarchy of needs and links these needs to motivation. Maslow divided human needs into three categories, the deficiency needs (physical and psychological well being) , growth needs(knowing, appreciating, and understanding), and self actualization (ones potential). Maslow pointed out that individuals will not be motivated to the second need until the demands of the first need have been satisfied. Based on Maslows theory, job satisfaction has been approached by some researchers from the perception of need ful ¬Ã‚ llment (Kuhlen, 1963; Worf, 1970; Conrad et al., 1985). The fulfillment of job related needs lead to increase satisfaction as individual moves up in the hierarchy to the highest level. An individual who reaches the self-realization will continue in his job and becomes more efficient and productive, whereas unfulfilled needs will lead to poor performance; less productivity, work related stress and eventually job dissatisfaction which might result in turno ver. Herzberg Motivation-Hygiene theory (1959): Herzberg presented a dual factor theory. He uses the needs satisfaction to explain job satisfaction. He believed that satisfaction and dissatisfaction were separate and unrelated. Intrinsic factors called motivators (i.e. related to the nature and experience of performing work) were found to be job satis ¬Ã‚ ers and included: achievement, recognition, work itself and responsibility and similar to the growth needs of Maslows hierarchy. Extrinsic factors called hygiene factors were found to be job dissatis ¬Ã‚ ers and included: organizational policy, administration, supervision, salary, interpersonal relations and working conditions to the deficiency needs of Maslow. However, the distinction between motivators and hygiene was not supported by many researches (Cronin-1977; Everly and Falcione, 1976; Gangadhraiah, et al.1990; Hutto Davis, 1989; Joiner, Johnson Crokrean, 1981; Koelbel, 1988; Munro, 1983; Simpson, 1985). Cavanagh (1992 cited in Burnard et al., 1999) noted that these theories attempt to specify particular needs that must be met or values that must be attained (p. 705) if an individual is to be satisfied at work. Figure 1: (Maslows and Herzbergs Ideas Compared, cited in Tiffany Jordan, undated) Vrooms Expectancy Theory of Motivation (1964): Vroom predicts that effort lead to increased performance (Expectancy), and performance lead to valued rewards (Instrumentality) and then these values are placed on outcomes (Valence), all three are required for positive motivation. If either of these factors were absent, performance will be altered to zero (Suliman, 2001). However several researches have supported the principles of the theory (Campbell Pritchard, 1976, Hollenback, 1979, Mitchell, 1974). However, questions remain to which extent an employee can increase his/her efforts about the corresponding organizational structure and decision making processes needed to fulfill the expectations of workers. (Expectancy Theory of Motivation (Undated), cited in Arrod, Definitions of Job Satisfaction based on the theories: Job satisfaction is the affective orientation that an employee has towards his or her work (Price, 2001). Specter (1997) summarized the following facets of job satisfaction: appreciation, communication, co-workers, fringe bene ¬Ã‚ ts, job conditions, nature of the work itself, the nature of the organization itself, an organizations policies and procedures, pay, personal growth, promotion opportunities, recognition, security and supervision. Dentitions Related Theory The individual matching of personal needs to the perceived potential of the occupation for satisfying those needs (Kuhlen, 1963) Maslows human needs theory (Maslow, 1954 Need ful ¬Ã‚ llment, that is, whether or not the job met the employees physical and psychological needs for the things within the work situation (Worf, 1970) A match between what individuals perceive they need and what rewards they perceive they receive from their jobs (Conrad et al., 1985) A function of satisfaction with the different elements of the job (Herzberg 1959) Herzberg motivation-hygiene theory (Herzberg, 1959) All the feelings that an individual has about his job (Gruneberg, 1976) Focus on cognitive process (Spector, 1997) The affective orientation that an employee has towards his or her work (Price, 2001) (Table 1, Dentitions of job satisfaction, Hong Lu, While, A., Barriball, K.,(2004) C. Previous Research Review: C. Previous Research Review: Locke (1976) defined job satisfaction as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job or job experience. That is, it is the discrepancy between what an employee values and what the situation provides. Job satisfaction is a complex phenomenon. The current global shortage of nurses places of interest the importance of understanding the effect and interrelationships of the factors that contribute to nurses dissatisfaction and consequently turnover so that healthcare organizations may implement strategies that help to retain nurses. Sources of nurses job satisfaction: Satisfaction has been found to be related to performance within the work environment (Landeweerd and Boumans, 1988, cited in Burnard et al., 1999), so it is not amazing that the notion of job satisfaction has gained much attention. Researchers have attempted to identify the different variables of job satisfaction, measure the significance of each variable and examine what effect these variables have on the productivity of the employee (Burnard et al., 1999). A variety of quantitative and qualititative studies have been done on the sources of job satisfaction among nurses and here are the most important findings: Aiken et al. (2001) found in his global study in a sample of 43,329 nurses working in adult acute hospitals that job dissatisfaction among nurses was highest in the United States (41%) followed by Scotland (38%), England (36%), Canada (33%) and Germany (17%). One third of nurses in England and Scotland and more than one  ¬Ã‚ fth in the United States have intent to quit their job within 12 months of data collection. More striking, however, was that 27-54% of nurses less than 30 years of age intended to quit within 12 months of data collection in all countries. Opportunities for the development were the reason behind the satisfaction of the nurses in Germany (61%) while salary was the satisfier for the nurses in USA (57%) and Canada (69%). Similarly, Adamson et al. (1995) found that British nurses were more dissatis ¬Ã‚ ed than Australian nurses. He pointed that the poor insight of professional status, insufficient relationship with hospital management system and improper working environment, were found in British more than Australian nurses. Professional organization and work design, con ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å¡ict between the newly gained experience during training and the available one. Furthermore, lack of communication between nurses and physicians, feeling of being not respected by other related health professionals, hospital managers and physicians were a concern to the British nurses. Nevertheless, the perception of autonomy by the Australian and British nurses was nearly the same. Eventually Tovey and Adams (1999) came up with the main sources of nurses dissatisfaction: working interactions, mainly those with administration, shortage of staff, professional concerns about poor standards of care and external work pressure. Nolan et al. (1998) found that level of job satisfaction had remained stable. They further found in a sample of 518 nurses that 35% of nurses reported reduction in their level of satisfaction and 69% drop in their morality. Price (2002), using the satisfaction scale of Mueller and McCloskeys (1990a, b) in a sample of 141 nurses found that (58%) were generally satis ¬Ã‚ ed with their job. Highest satisfaction was related to co-workers and extrinsic rewards and most dissatisfaction was with the amount of control and responsibility they had and with professional opportunities. Nurses were most satis ¬Ã‚ ed with annual leave, nursing peers and hours worked (79%, 78% and 76% of respondents) and dissatisfied with compensation for working weeke nds and control over work conditions and childcare facilities (55%, 55% and 46% of respondents. Using the same scale, Wang (2002) found that Chinese nurses were mostly dissatis ¬Ã‚ ed with pay and job promotion. Finally, nurses job satisfaction is very essential to organizations as levels of job satisfaction would globally impact the nursing workforce. Sources of job satisfaction are relatively similar, e.g., physical working setting, relations with fellow workers and managers, salary, promotion, job security, responsibility, the recognition from managers and working hours. Effects of job satisfaction of nurses on absenteeism, burnout, turnover and intention to quit: Researchers have generally found that satisfied employees are more productive and committed to their jobs, whereas dissatisfied ones experience absenteeism, grievances and turnover (Smith 1996, cited in Alamri, 2001).Matrunola, (1996) did not find any significant relationship between job satisfaction and abscentism in a small sample of 34 nurses which makes its generalization difficult. Borda and Norman (1997) noted a signi ¬Ã‚ cant positive relationship between job satisfaction and intent to stay and negative relationships between job satisfaction and frequency of 1 day absence and short-term absence. Sius (2002) indicates that job satisfaction was an important predictor of abscentism. Job dissatisfaction is consistently linked to high levels of stress, burn-out or mental and physical exhaustion (Blegen et al. 1993, Adams Bond 2000, Aiken et al. 2002). Keel (1993) cited in Tzeng 2002), indicated that burnout affects mainly nurses, physicians, social workers and teachers. Burnout seems to be caused by stressful working conditions, disproportional-high efforts (time, emotional involvement, and empathy) and dissatisfaction with jobs. For the goals of lowering professional stress and improved satisfaction, social support and improved team cooperation could protect nurses against burnout. There is a vast body of the literature linking job satisfaction in nursing and turnover. Job dissatisfaction has been frequently identi ¬Ã‚ ed as the reason why nurses leave their jobs (Lum et al., 1998; Tzeng, 2002). Tzeng (2002) has also noted that factors such as indirect working environment (hospitals policies, bene ¬Ã‚ ts, leisure activities, housing, parking, and vacation policy), salary and promotion as very important but strongly dissatisfying and indicated that job satisfaction is a predictor of turnover. A study conducted in the United States revealed that dissatisfied nurses were 65% more likely to have intent to quit compared to their satisfied colleagues (Shields Ward, 2001 cited in Masroor A.M., Fakir M. J., 2010). Gray and Philips (1994) Examined turnover rates and relationship to age and length of service in 342,000 employees from nine staff groups in National Health Service (NHS) and explored that annual turnover rate among all NHS staff 13.6%; higher turnover among full-time than part-time; turnover declines with age, are high in  ¬Ã‚ rst year of service, remains high in second year before declining. Leveck and Jones (1996) indicated that experience on unit and professional job satisfaction were predictors of staff nurse retention; job stress and clinical service were predictors of quality of care. The variable contributing the most was management style. While Davidson et al (1997) in a sample of 736 hospital nurses cited that intent to leave predicted by perception of little promotion, high routinization, low decision latitude and poor communication. Lum et al (1998) found among 361 RNs in neonatal and pediatric Intensive Care Unit that Job satisfaction has indirect and organizational c ommitment has direct effect on intent to quit. Boyle et al (1999) recognized that managers position power and in ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å¡uence over work coordination had direct link to intent to stay. Instrumental communication, autonomy, and group cohesion decreased job stress and thus increased job satisfaction. Job satisfaction was directly linked with intent to stay. Furthermore, Hemingway and smith (1999) discovered that high work pressure was predictive of greater role con ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å¡ict and role ambiguity, and of more stress from heavy workload. In addition, poor supervisor support was signi ¬Ã‚ cantly related to greater stress from heavy workload, and lack of autonomy was related to higher role ambiguity. Larabee et al (2003) proposed that major predictor of intent to leave was job dissatisfaction, and the major predictor of job satisfaction was psychological empowerment. Predictors of psychological empowerment were hardiness, transformational leadership style, nurse/ physician collabor ation, and group cohesion. Strachota et al (2003)identified the following reasons: hours worked; better job opportunity; family; poor pay and bene ¬Ã‚ ts; poor staffing; unsupportive management; unacceptable work environment; work stress; no opportunity for advancement. Duffield et al (2004) added the following causes: leaving related to work aspects, structural aspects, professional issues, team support, salary and prestige, employer care, and legal concerns. Turnover has many consequences such as mean cost per RN turnover was $10,198, ranging from $6,886 to $15,152(Jones, 1990b, Waldman et al, 2004)), poor patient satisfaction, risk of infection increased almost 30% and the risk of hospitalization increased more than 80% (Zimmerman et al, 2002). Leiter et al. (1998)cited in Tzeng,2002) concluded that patients, who stayed on wards where nursing staff felt more exhausted or more frequently expressed their intention to quit, were less satis ¬Ã‚ ed with their medical care. This study con ¬Ã‚ rmed the importance of understanding nurses job satisfaction and intention to quit as both concepts, which would contribute to patient outcomes. Moreover, both nurses job satisfaction and patient satisfaction have been identi ¬Ã‚ ed in the Nursing Report Card for Acute Care (American Nurses Association, 1995) as two of the important nursing quality outcome indicators. Lee et al.s (2003) showed that the most common reasons for nurses turnover were work overload, rotating shifts and con ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å¡ict in interpersonal relationships. A total of 24%, 15% and 35% of variance regarding depersonalization, emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment, respectively, was explained by the individual characteristics, job stress and personal resources were explained by the predictor variables. Turning to, Cavanagh (1990) indicated that job satisfaction was the determining factor of turnover which could be predicted by kinship responsibility, promotion, pay and influential communication skills. Wu et al (2000), found a positive and significant relation between the job stress and intention to quit. This was also confirmed in Yin and Yangs (2002) meta-analysis who revealed that the strongest factors for nurse turnover were job satisfaction, autonomy, advancement opportunity, job stress, pay, group cohesion, marital status and educational level. To sum up, researches from various countries indicate that job satisfaction is a signi ¬Ã‚ cant predictor of nursing absenteeism, burnout, turnover and intention to quit the organization and nursing profession. Related factors to job satisfaction of nurses Blegens (1993) meta-analysis found a strong connection between job satisfaction, stress and organizational commitment. Seven variables had strong correlations: communication with supervisor, autonomy, recognition, routinization, communication with peers, fairness and locus of control; and four variables had very weak correlations: age, years of experience, education and professionalism. A causal model of job satisfaction has been tested in the studies of Chu et al.s (2003) among 308 Taiwanese nurses and Seo et al.s (2004) among 353 South Korean nurses, respectively. In this model 11 independent variables included: job involvement, positive affectivity, negative affectivity, autonomy, distributive justice, procedural justice, job stress (role ambiguity, role con ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å¡ict, and workload and resource inadequacy, pay, promotional chances, routinization and social support .Moreover, four of twelve structural variables (workload, supervisory support, routinization, and pay) were found to have signi ¬Ã‚ cant net effects on satisfaction. Chu et al. (2003) found that six variables had significant impact on job satisfaction: routinization, positive affectivity, involvement, negative affectivity, role ambiguity, supervisor support which explain 45% of the variance in satisfaction. Whereas Seo et al. (2004) found seven variables had statistically signi ¬Ã‚ cant effects on job satisfaction: positive affectivity, supervisory support, pay, routinization, negative affectivity, workload and job opportunity and he found reasonable fit between the casual model and data; all the variables explained 53% of the variance. Interestingly, Packard and Motowidlo (1987) correlated job satisfaction with depression, hostility, subjective stress, frequency of stressful events, intensity of stressful events and anxiety. Knoop (1995) indicated that organizational commitment is positively related to job satisfaction among nurses, satisfaction with work, promotion opportunity, supervision, co-workers and pay among Canadian nurses. Organizational commitment refers to identi ¬Ã‚ cation with and loyalty to the organization and its goals (Blau and Boal, 1987) which Mowday et al. (1979). Commitment is characterized by three factors: a strong belief in and an acceptance of the organizations goals and values; a willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization; and a strong desire to maintain membership in the organization (Blegen, 1993; Al-Aameri, 2000). Fang, (2001) agreed with the studies of (Blegen, 1993; Al-Aameri, 2000) and cited that job satisfaction was significantly and positively relate d to organizational commitment, professional commitment, and negatively related to job stress. Organizational commitment has an incremental effect on a professionals intention to leave the organization (Blau and Lunz, 1998). Enhancing professional commitment in nursing has the potential to produce bene ¬Ã‚ ts for both the individual and their organization (Cohen, 1998; Cohen, 1999). Furthermore, professional commitment is positively related to the job satisfaction of nurses (Lu et al., 2000; Jones, 2000).Lu et al., (2002) indicates that professional commitment is more effective in predicting intention to leave the nursing profession than intention to leave the organization at 9.2 %. Lu et al., (2002) added that Job satisfaction was more effective in predicting intent to leave the organization than intention to leave the nursing profession at 8 %. Moreover, role con ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å¡ict and ambiguity are signi ¬Ã‚ cantly related to job stress, organizational commitment, job satisfacti on and intentions to leave the nursing profession (Rosse and Rosse, 1981).Dailey (1990) found that most signi ¬Ã‚ cant predictor of intention to quit was experienced job induced stress symptoms. However, Mitchells (1994) in United State study found that there was not a signi ¬Ã‚ cant linear association between a nurses job satisfaction and the correlation between work role values and actual work roles. Yet, the  ¬Ã‚ nding that workload has the second largest impact emphasizes the relative importance of job stress in determining levels of nurses job satisfaction. This  ¬Ã‚ nding is consistent with the results obtained in other empirical studies which have shown that the job stress variables have negative impacts on job satisfaction (Mathieu, 1990, 1991