Monday, May 25, 2020

Case Study The Sharing Economy - 1821 Words

Jefferson Barros Prof. David Levy MGT-330 Nov. 24, 2015 Case Study: The Sharing Economy This reflective case study is about the Sharing Economy and how businesses have since evolved from the Machine Age era to now communicating in the Information Age. There has been an enormous shift from traditional industry that the Industrial Revolution brought through industrialization, to an economy based on information computerization. With the rise of services we have entered into a new economy known as the sharing or peer-to-peer economy. These services provided which creates a Shared Economy allows individuals to provide a service, often at a cheaper rate than the standard market price, to a large network of users through a branded platform, which†¦show more content†¦This new economic model has had a significant impact on a variety of industries, and is mostly widespread in the travel, mobility and finance industry. Technology has altered modern day life in many ways, especially in the workplace. The invention of computers, the miniaturization of electronics and the development of wireless communication have all altered the business world. Business communication, in particular, has seen some of the greatest advancements due to technological developments. The role of technology comes into place with Sharing Economy because majority of the platforms are accessible online or through applications on the smartphone. The Sharing Economy only exists when people are willing to share with one another therefore allowing the communication through technology. The Sharing Economy is one of the most fascinating, powerful and yet vulnerable economic business models out there today. Understanding the core values behind sharing is also crucial. People share, mainly, because of four reasons: social reasons (to meet new people), economic reasons (to save money), practical reasons (to save time) and sustainable reasons (to protect the environment). For the social side of ‘sharing’ means meeting new people by staying in their homes (AirBnb), renting their car (RelayRides) or even catching a ride (Uber) is all part of the charm. As well as the background checks carried out by platform owners, online reviews and ratings are usually posted by both

Thursday, May 14, 2020

The State Organized Education System - 942 Words

The state organized education system that is in place today, is not in flux with that of the new economy. What we have is not Preparing children for the future. Instead of rather training our children through the senses, we must teach them the fundamentals of the minds faculties. So that our youth will be better equipped with the tools for the new economy, and wealth creation rather than, just being subject to the paycheck paradigm and not, rightfully prepared for the new economy. The current babysitter model will be replaced by teacher groups that will mentor the children. More also these teachers will be with the students for a period of four years time in the K-12 system. So you will have three sets of mentors that you will be in contact with throughout your education, rather than just the one teacher for a year. I will never forget the mentorship from my sixth grade teacher who encouraged me and supported my musical attributes. Along with other great mentors and teachers up until my college education. But despite such wonderful mentors, the school system in itself still failed me. Teaching me not about myself nor my minds faculties, and that I should only be concerned with getting good grades. Throughout my time in elementary school I was taken out for what seemed to be cognitive testing of some sort. Very odd sensory assignments were given to me, then from how I perceived these assignments to be. I could see the school counselor make some marks on a sheet ofShow MoreRelatedBuilding Education Break Free From The Hierarchy System1662 Words   |  7 PagesInstitutions are in place in our society to aid in controlling people to a certain extent in order to keep a peaceful, orderly and organized system. In our lives we have our families controlling our lives to certain extents in order for us to be safe and be educated about our culture. Educational institutions play another important role by informing us about the world and its current situation as well as pr eparing us for our future professions. Religious institutions are one more social institutionRead MorePrayer in Public Schools Essay1440 Words   |  6 Pages The United States has continued to be a country where religion plays a major role in the lives of American citizens. Depending on the type of school students attend, organized prayer is mandatory, allowed, or banned. In the United States, organized prayer in public schools is prohibited because it goes against the Constitution’s separation of church and state (Jinkins 123). The United States promises religious freedom, but is yet to define the degree and limitation of that liberty. However, AmericanRead MoreRev. Henry Ward1646 Words   |  7 PagesBiography - An Account of his life (1879-1981) Reverend Henry Ward was born in Golden Grove, St. Ann. He received his early education at Clapham Elementary School, and then moved on to St. George’s Elementary in guys Hill. There he passed the Pupil Teachers’ Examination with distinction and gained an exhibitioner’s scholarship to the Micro Teachers’ College. He distinguished himself at Mico, and his personal conduct was exemplary throughout his college career. In 1900, he graduated from Mico asRead More Criticism of Organized Religion in Little Boy Lost and Little Boy Found804 Words   |  4 Pages Criticism of Organized Religion in Little Boy Lost and Little Boy Found nbsp; Organized religion and its adversity to the natural world is a topic that William Blake addresses quite frequently in his writings. In Little Boy Lost, from Songs of Innocence, Blake presents a young child, representing the fledgling mind, getting lost in the dark forest of the material world. The illustration at the top of the page shows the little boy being led by a light or spirit of some kind, the vapourRead MoreScheduling Classes, Athletic Events, and Extra Circular Activities1491 Words   |  6 PagesScheduling Classes, Athletic Events, and Extra Circular Activities We are all given 24 hours in a day and in an organized system each hour is given a category or name. An Athletic Director has many responsibilities in managing a department that has many activities occurring each day. These activities are physical education classes, practice schedules and locations, meeting special needs students, coordinating game schedules for each sport, and finding time to mentor those within the departmentRead MoreExploring the Conditions Purposes of Public Schools: Are Schools Simply Used to Create a Well-Trained or Well-Educated Workforce?811 Words   |  4 Pagesschools are organized as explained in Hurns essay are the functional and conflict paradigms. The functional theory states that in a society that requires highly talented workers, schools have two very important tasks, to teach both specialized and cognitive skills. Merit based status, therefore, is the main cure for inequality in society. In terms of the level of schooling, higher education cre dentials are used to separate the unskilled from high status jobs. The functional theory also states that aRead MoreWhat Impact Did the Major Political, Economic and Social Changes of the Meiji Restoration Have on Japan?1043 Words   |  5 Pagesnation also made Japan richer and more economically stable, with a structured education system. Japan, an impotent, closed feudal state, was transformed into a formidable nation focused on nationalism. In attempt to acquire strength and unity in the government, political changes focused on creating a centralized government and a western constitution. In consequence, the Japanese government became more united and organized. As the western nations were the most influential countries at the time, JapanRead MoreEssay on Social Organized Crime Perspective729 Words   |  3 PagesSocial Organized Crime Prespective Nelson Mieles University of Phoenix Criminal Organizations CJA 393 James K. Roberts, M.A. January 11, 2011 Social Institution A social institution is a group that someone lives and grows up in. These institutions or groups have a goal or task to complete. For example, a school is an educational social institution in which either children or adults go to learn a way of life. Social institutions are based on structures of relationships, functions, rolesRead MoreThe Purpose Of Education By Martin Luther King Jr. And Wiley College Vs. Oklahoma City College1194 Words   |  5 PagesBailey Nielsen Galloway College Composition 20 January 2015 Education in Society Within the speeches The Purpose of Education by Martin Luther King Jr. and Wiley College vs. Oklahoma City College from the movie The Great Debaters, there are many different points that can be identified as ethos, pathos, or logos. Logos- In The Purpose of Education, King talks about how even though a person may be educated it doesn’t necessarily mean that they are intelligent. King mentions Eugene Talmadge, whom ofRead MoreBenefits Of Youth Sports : A Positive Impact On All Those That Participate1286 Words   |  6 Pages Over seventy-five percent of United States families with school-aged children have at least one child who engage in organized sports. (Bailey, 1) Parents sign their children up for organized sports for numerous reasons, like, keeping their children fit and active, building a sense of teamwork, or others may be fulfilling their passion for sports through their children. Whatever the reason for signing a child up for youth sports, it is apparent that organi zed sports positively impact a child’s physical

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Inflammatory Bowel Disease/ Crohns Disease Essay

Inflammatory Bowel Disease/ Crohns Disease Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic disorders that cause inflammation or ulceration in the small and large intestines. Most often IBD is classified as ulcerative colitis or Crohns disease but may be referred to as colitis, enteritis, ileitis, and proctitis. Ulcerative colitis causes ulceration and inflammation of the inner lining of a couple of really bad places, while Crohns disease is an inflammation that extends into the deeper layers of the intestinal wall. Ulcerative colitis and Crohns disease cause similar symptoms that often resemble other conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome (spastic colitis). The correct diagnosis may take some time. Crohns disease†¦show more content†¦These procedures are done by putting the barium, a chalky solution, into the upper or lower intestines. The barium shows up white on x-ray film, revealing inflammation or ulceration and other abnormalities in the intestine. If you have Crohns disease, you may need medical care for a long time. Your doctor also will want to test you regularly to check on your condition. What Is the Treatment? Several drugs are helpful in controlling Crohns disease, but at this time there is no cure. The usual goals of therapy are to correct nutritional deficiencies; to control inflammation; and to relieve abdominal pain, diarrhea, and bleeding in a really bad place. Abdominal cramps and diarrhea may be helped by drugs. The drug sulfasalazine often lessens the inflammation, especially in the colon. This drug can be used for as long as needed, and it can be used along with other drugs. Side effects such as nausea, vomiting, weight loss, heartburn, diarrhea, and headache occur in a small percentage of cases. Patients who do not do well on sulfasalazine often do very well on related drugs known as mesalamine or 5-ASA agents. More serious cases may require steroid drugs, antibiotics, or drugs that affect the bodys immune system such as azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine. Can Diet Control Crohns Disease? No special diet has been proven effective for preventing or treating this disease. Some people find their symptoms are made worse by milk, alcohol, hot spices, orShow MoreRelatedCrohns Disease is Inflammation in the Digestive System Essay709 Words   |  3 PagesCrohn’s disease is a life-long condition effecting victims of any age. It is considered a form of an inflammatory bowel disease that causes inflammation in the digestive system. The cause of the disease is unknown. The inflammation is due to the immune system attacking the healthy cells throughout the body’s gastrointestinal tract. The exact causes of Crohn’s disease remain unknown, but most believe that factors that contribute to the disease may include genetics, immune system, environment, etcRead MoreVideo Capsule Endoscopy for Identifying Crohn’s Disease Essay1449 Words   |  6 PagesIdentifying Crohn’s Disease Crohn’s disease is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that could occur anywhere from the mouth to the rectum. However, it usually affects the intestines (Longstreth, 2010). Like many illnesses, there is no cure for Crohn’s as the exact cause of it is unknown. There are a number of tests and procedures available that aide in making the diagnosis of Crohn’s disease. Stool cultures and blood work can suggest IBD but may not directly indicate the disease. BariumRead MoreTaking a Look at Crohns Disease1552 Words   |  6 Pages Crohn’s Diseases is a idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease, of the gastro intestinal tract from the mouth to the anus. Crohns has an effect on people in many different forms and fashion from physiological to psychological. Depression is a major factor that comes into play with this (IBD). Patients live on the edge from day to day when dealing with spontaneous episodes of diarrhea and chronic abdominal pains. Clients may show a lack of interest in the social aspect of life due to illness, and mayRead MoreInflammatory Bowel Disease and Industrialization Essay1682 Words   |  7 Pages Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a chronic and relapsing gastrointestinal condition currently affecting a total of about 28 million people worldwide (cite). Although it is not considered a fatal condition, painful and disabling symptoms can have a profound detrimental effect on patients’ quality of life. Current understandings behind the etiology of IBD emphasize genetic predispositions to gastrointestinal immune system imbalances. However, pathophysiological understandings of IBD seem to beRead MoreInflammatory Bowel Disease and Ulcerative Colitis 861 Words   |  3 PagesInflammatory Bowel Disease and Ulcerative Colitis Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) refers to a variety of conditions in which a chronic immune response and inflammation occur throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases are triggered by an abnormal response by the body’s immune system. In a normal functioning immune system, the cells protect the body from infection. However, in those who are suffering from IBD, the immune system mistakes bacteria, food, and other materialsRead MoreThe Inflammatory Bowel Disorder Known As Crohn s Disease ( Cd )1291 Words   |  6 Pagesfundamental purpose of this paper is to apprise to the reader pivotal information on the inflammatory bowel disorder known as Crohn’s Disease (CD). It is a rare disease that is usually not wanted to be discussed by its sufferers, due to its sensitive nature of being a digestive problem. Luckily, as this paper will show, it is now an issue slowly, but surely, being explored more openly. A short introduction to the chronic disease wi ll be divulged, pathophysiology and etiology will be discussed to prepare theRead MoreLiving With Crohn s Disease1126 Words   |  5 PagesLiving with Crohn’s Disease Sharon is a 17 year old young women, her mother noticed that Sharon had lost a significant amount of weight, and she looked pale and had dark circles under her eyes. Sharon was complaining of severe diarrhea, stomach cramps, and after battling this for weeks she was extremely tired. Her doctor conducted a standard physical exam, and interviewed Sharon about her general health, diet, family history, and environment. Her doctor performed laboratory tests of blood and stoolRead MoreInflammatory Bowel Disease1385 Words   |  6 PagesInflammatory Bowel Disease 1. Describe the pathopysiology of the disease you have chosen – What is the spectrum of disease/pathology the disease? Is the disease characterized by inflammation, etc? Is it an infectious and/or chronic disease? If so what is the agent, its reservoir, mode of transmission etc. Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic illness characterized by inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract (Wolf, CDC, Mayo clinic, health direct, NHS choices). Patients suffering from inflammatoryRead MoreInflammatory Bowel Disease ( Ibd )1434 Words   |  6 Pages Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can be defined as the chronic condition (it is persistent/ long-standing disease) resulting from inappropriate mucosal immune activation. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can start at any age. However, it is frequently seen among teenagers And also among young adults in their early twenties, both genders can be affected by this disease. There are two conditions that traditionally comprise inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): Ulcerative colitis and crohns disease. ComparisonRead MoreCrohn s Disease And Its Effects On The Ileum And Colon1658 Words   |  7 Pages Crohn’s Disease David Layfield Anatomy and Physiology II BIOL 2402.23001 Prof. Glenn Kasparian Brookhaven College Farmers Branch, TX 3 May 2017 Table of Contents î ¿ ¿Abstract 2 History 3 Physiology 5 Treatment 6 Bibliography 9î ¿ ¾ Abstract Crohn’s disease is a kind of inflammatory bowel disease primarily affecting the ileum and colon. It was first defined in detail in a paper by Burrill B. Crohn and two colleagues, where it was differentiated from other generic bowel diseases. Although they proposed

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Lefebvres View of the Work-Leisure Relationship- myassignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about theLefebvres View of the Work-Leisure Relationship. Answer: The movie Revolutionary Road as developed has significantly evolved to highlight the various valleys and mountains that the todays life is all about. At the start of the movie, a married couple whose life is ahead of them is introduced, and they are required to decide on critical matters. Lefebvre proposed that leisure time is the time spent away from work. The most important question is whether there exists any considerable relationship between leisure and work. The present work seeks to investigate whether such relationships do exist and what forms an obstacle towards reaching the most regarded life status. Therefore, one can agree with Lefebvre statement that We work to earn our leisure, and leisure has only one meaning: to get away from work. A vicious circle. The statement We work to earn our leisure, and leisure has only one meaning: to get away from work. A vicious circle true as brought out in the movie. The two seem to be blinded by love and have so much to ponder and achieve in their newly formed relationship. It is evident that the couples are driven by some hunger for something not understanding their middle age life. The couple wished to fulfill their fantasies little did they know their love was driven by yearnings. Lefebvre particular considers an individuals life is a totality of what happens throughout time. Though much is anticipated, one can start to think or imagine that, the couple seem to be losing track and ought to meet what they have been preparing for all their life. In the introduction, it can be noted that Frank secures an executive job where he works as a salesperson but April (a housewife and jobless) views her husbands job as meaningless - and working as an office machine. She jokes by saying that her husband may later become one of the office machines if he is not one. The question that arises is whether April and her husband are confused or dont know how to handle rhetorical life situations that fall into place without knocking. Through analysis of the key parts of the movie, the paper seeks to provide an answer or simply an explanation of their present actions (Ploger and Lefebvre 65). Lefebvre proposed that leisure is free time spend away from the business, education, domestic chores, and other activities. He points out that leisure and work are inseparable and life of any person is subject to the division of labor and in the social perception, this is reflected in leisure activities. everyday evidence always evidences the potential for transformation. He perceived every day as a critical totality of social life. His final work persuades the theme of everyday life by approaching it as a time-space that could be open to rhythm analysis (Lefebvre, 65). With diverse life dimensions, it is important not to consider ones life as one junk of a thing. The movie depicts April as one who is after personal interests and has fewer considerations into their current life with two kids and responsibilities to meet. Hence, a clear indication that the statement we work to earn our leisure, and leisure has only one meaning: to get away from work. A vicious circle is true. The essay is interested in investigating the relation between leisure and work as portrayed in the movie Revolutionary Road and also as depicted in Lefebvre essays. Kate Winslet, a mother of two, suggests to her husband to quit job not bearing in mind they now have responsibilities to meet as parents. The recklessness of the couple is shown by the fact that they both got together through pregnancy and seemed to take their children as a car that you cant think of if you are not driving it. Lefebvre rhythm analysis implies that the newlywed has their life happening in cyclically. This states by Lefebvre we work to earn our leisure, and leisure has only one meaning: to get away from work. A vicious circle credibility and validity ("Revolutionary Road (2008) Movie - Leonardo Dicaprio, Kate Winslet, Christopher Fitzgerald" 19:25). A rhetorical question that would arise is where the two are headed? One can see by the look of things; the two are headed to life dilemma. The movie reveals by coincidence that, the time Frank secures job promotion and a pay rise is the same time April is persistent about their move to Paris. As put forward by Lefebvre, the couple fails to confront the twists that seem to befall them and are headed to a big loss. It is frustrating for their son to come from a mental hospital just to meet the ugly insights at the Wheelers (McGuire, Vio and O'leary 251-257) (Zuzanek and Mannell 31-57). Dicaprio and Winslet predicted the romance heading in Titanic this simply implies just like the most regard ship did perish, the lives of the couple seem to be headed the same direction. At one point the movie portrays the couple with their children as living in Connecticut suburbs and being viewed as role models in the region, however, this seems to take a different direction due to Aprils selfishness. The couple seems to be in love with the world of entertainment and is moved by the photo of Beatnik listening to a record of modern jazz that was said to be cool. They seem to value leisure more than the ideal life and are too extravagant on luxuries (Townsend 442-456). April is portrayed as a villain. She thinks her man is busy doing a useless job which she related that of his father. The movie portrays our daily lives as composed of rhythms, and understanding this, is an inherent factor of everyday life. The rhythm is circular and inevitable on the road of ones revolution (Zuzanek and Mannell 31-57). At some point, Frank is brought out as having a love affair with a secretary (workmate). The theme of betrayal is well depicted when he spends a night with his workmate. This demonstrates immorality and bad use of leisure time. He does seem to understand himself and also betrays his wife April. Several immoral practices are therefore witnessed as both partners indulge in dancing and drinking in the cities. In the movie, Frank spends a night away from home without a substantial reason. Some session of the movie presents a series of emotionally laden memories and textual echoes that render the film cyclical (Lefebvre 65). The revolutionary road is a cyc lical narrative, a recapitulation of events that allow change of in an emotional perspective. Like any other man of the times (the 1950s), Frank fails tragically in reaching out his dream life being a man of substance, different from his father who worked in the same organization but led a miserable life (Revolutionary Road (2008) 44:05). Lefebvre brings out leisure as one term that can be understood by not only considering the free alternative of work but as broader relations. He points out that some practices that individuals assume may not be distinctively taken as leisure. Individuals and personalities can improve their productivity by getting involved in leisure activities (Aitchison 20). Productive labor is matched with the rhythm of life people look for active leisure activities while leisure machines like television sets and radios promote passive leisure (Shaw 271-286). The question that comes in here is whether Leisure is important to ones life. The likely answer to this question could be relaxation, entertainment, and pleasure. Leisure should not be spent in immoral behaviors. Thus, sexual practices, criminal actions, and other social vices should not be part of leisure activities (Choi and Yoo 140-155). The statement we work to earn our leisure, and leisure has only one meaning: to get away from work. A v icious circle as depicted by Lefebvre is true. In a nutshell, the Revolutionary Road movie leaves the audience in a situation that compels an individual to reflect on present-day life. Every day is represented by a variety of issues that couples need to absorb and have the right mentality towards handling these issues that led to disastrous life for the couple. It should be noted that falling for ferocious fights, and conflict is bound to happen. In Revolutionary Road movie, this seemed to be the case for Frank and April since both have failed to establish their passions and missions in their lives. Since life is quite unpredictable, and no one knows what tomorrow has in store for us, then it can be recommended that balance between leisure and work is quite paramount (Highmore 40-0216-40-0216). One can agree with Lefebvre statement that We work to earn our leisure, and leisure has only one meaning: to get away from work. A vicious circle. Works cited Aitchison, Cara. "Young Disabled People, Leisure and Everyday Life: Reviewing Conventional Definitions for Leisure Studies." Annals of Leisure Research 3.1 (2000): 1-20. Web. Arnold, Peter. "On The Relationship Between Education, Work and Leisure: Past, Present and Future." British Journal of Educational Studies 37.2 (1989): 136-146. Web. Choi, Suh-hee, and Ye-ji Yoo. "Leisure Attitude and Satisfaction with Leisure and Life: Proposing Leisure Prioritization and Justification." World Leisure Journal 59.2 (2016): 140-155. Web. Highmore, Ben. "Everyday Life and Cultural Theory: An Introduction." Choice Reviews Online 40.01 (2002): 40-0216-40-0216. Web. Janke, Megan C. et al. "The Role of Life Experiences On Perceptions of Leisure During Adulthood: A Longitudinal Analysis." Leisure Sciences 33.1 (2010): 52-69. Web. Kiely, E. "Young People, Risk and Leisure, Constructing Identities in Everyday Life." Community Development Journal 41.1 (2005): 116-119. Web. "Revolutionary Road (2008) Movie - Leonardo Dicaprio, Kate Winslet, Christopher Fitzgerald."YouTube. N.p., 2017. Web. 8 Oct. 2017. McGuire, Francis A., F. Dominic Dotta Vio, and Joseph T. O'leary. "The Relationship of Early Life Experiences to Later Life Leisure Involvement." Leisure Sciences 9.4 (1987): 251-257. Web. Ploger, John, and Henri Lefebvre. "Critique of Everyday Life." Geografiska Annaler. Series B, Human Geography 77.1 (1995): 65. Web. Shaw, Susan M. "Dereifying Family Leisure: An Examination of Women's and Men's Everyday Experiences and Perceptions of Family Time." Leisure Sciences 14.4 (1992): 271-286. Web. Townsend, Keith. "Leisure at Work, Who Can Resist? An Investigation into Workplace Resistance by Leisure Service Employees." Journal of Industrial Relations 45.4 (2003): 442-456. Web. Wei, Xiang et al. "Leisure Time, Leisure Activities, And Happiness in China: Evidence from A National Survey." Journal of Leisure Research 47.5 (2015): n. pag. Web. Zuzanek, Jiri, and Roger Mannell. "Leisure Behaviour and Experiences as Part of Everyday Life: The Weekly Rhythm." Loisir et Socit / Society and Leisure 16.1 (1993): 31-57. Web.

Saturday, April 11, 2020

Macbeth Essays (560 words) - Characters In Macbeth,

Macbeth The most important emotions that we see in Macbeth are ambition, remorse, and fear. They are significant because they provoke Macbeth to do evil and cruel things. Ambition takes control of him earlier in the play when the witches tell him he is going to be king. After he already has done the deed, killed Duncan, he is remorseful for his actions. Out of fear for himself, Macbeth murdered Macduff's family and killed Banquo. Macbeth is captured by his wild ambition at the opening of the play when he and Banqou meet the three witches. The witches tell Macbeth that he is the Thane of Cawdor, and later will be king. They tell Banquo that his sons will be kings. Instantly Macbeth started to fantasize how he is going to be king. He understood that in order for him to become king he has to kill Duncan. ?My thought, whose murder yet is but fantastical?(Act 1 Sc. 3, p.23). He was pondering about the assassination until the moment that he could no longer control his emotions. ?To prick the sides of my intent, but only vaulting ambition, which overleaps itself and falls on the other-?(Act 1 Sc. 7, p.41). Because of his ?vaulting ambition? he killed Duncan. Macbeth feels a great deal of remorse after he has killed the king. He understands that he has committed a sin and will be punished. He is so terrified that he hears voices telling him:? Macbeth does murder sleep, ? , Macbeth shall sleep no more?(Act 2, Sc.2 p. 57). Macbeth is very upset with himself and wishes that he never killed Duncan. ?To know my deed it were best not know myself.? When he hears strange knocking at the gate he wishes that it wakes up Duncan, ?wake Duncan with thy knocking?, however it is too late (Act 2, Sc.3 p. 61). After Macbeth was successfully crowned, his fear did not let go of him. Earlier in the play right before the murder of Duncan, Macbeth was afraid that if he would kill Duncan this sin would come back to haunt him. ? This even handed justice commends the ingredience of our poisoned chalice to our own lips?(Act 1 Sc. 7 p. 39). So now when everything seemed fine, Macbeth was actually very afraid that something was wrong. He decided to see the witches again. One of the apparitions told him to beware of Macduff, ?Macbeth! Macbeth! Macbeth! Beware of Macduff.? The witches also tell him that he can not be hurt by anyone who is born from a woman. But still, due to his fear he sets out to kill Macduff. He could not catch him so he kills his family instead. Fear and paranoia were driving Macbeth crazy until Macduff came around and killed him, for Macduff was not of woman born. As we can see, the emotions of Macbeth are very important. He was greatly influenced by his ambition, fear and remorse. These emotions are significant because they stimulated Macbeth to do and not to do things mentioned above. If not for his ambition Duncan would still be alive and well. Because of his fear Macduff is now dead. Emotions need to be controlled and thought through or serious consequences may follow. Bibliography This is a pretty good paper on the emotions of Macbeth Shakespeare Essays

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Free Essays on A Sorrowful Woman

used to describe them are very pleasant, and yet the sight of them makes her sick. The overall tone of the piece is ... Free Essays on A Sorrowful Woman Free Essays on A Sorrowful Woman Explication of a Passage from Gail Godwin’s â€Å"A Sorrowful Woman† One winter evening she looked at them: the husband durable, receptive, gentle; the child a tender golden three. The sight of them made her so sad and sick she did not want to see them ever again. She told the husband these thoughts. He was attuned to her; he understood such things. He said he understood. What would she like him to do? â€Å"If you could put the boy to bed and read him the story about the monkey who ate too many bananas, I would be grateful.† â€Å"Of course,† he said. †Why, that’s a pleasure.† And he sent her off to bed. The next night it happened again. Putting the warm dishes away in the cupboard, she turned and saw the child’s gray eyes approving her movements. In the next room was the man, his chin sunk in the open collar of his favorite wool shirt. He was dozing after her good supper. The shirt was the gray of the child’s trusting gaze. She began yelping without tears, retching in between. The man woke in alarm and carried her in his arms to bed. The boy followed them up the stairs, saying, â€Å"It’s all right, Mommy,† but this made her scream. â€Å"Mommy is sick,† the father said, â€Å"go wait for me in your room.† The first three paragraphs of â€Å"A Sorrowful Woman† by Gail Godwin are a precursor of the tone and overall plot development of the rest of the story. The tone put forth in this passage is continued throughout the progression of the piece. Godwin also uses certain words and setting that lend to developing this tone of dreariness and sadness. The events that take place here foreshadow very similar ones later on in the story. The first paragraph also sets up the rest of the story. Now the reader knows the main conflict. The woman seems to love the husband and boy as the words used to describe them are very pleasant, and yet the sight of them makes her sick. The overall tone of the piece is ... Free Essays on A Sorrowful Woman The Sorrow of a Family: Selfishness and Lack of Communication Destroys Family Thesis: A deeper look into the story reveals that her selfishness and pity for her life is fueling her sorrow and along with their lack of communication causes the demise of this family. Neva Pittman February 27, 2003 A Sorrowful Woman Gail Godwin’s â€Å"A Sorrowful Woman† leads one to believe that the wife is maybe overwhelmed, possibly just having a bad day. The belief is that with her husband’s understanding she and her family will get through this. Everyone has a bad day and people sometimes get on each other’s nerves. A shocking revelation comes to the reader that this isn’t just a bad day. A deeper look into the story reveals that her selfishness and pity for her life is fueling her sorrow and along with their lack of communication causes the demise of this family. In reading this story we find a woman tired of being a mother, a wife and of her life in general. â€Å"The sight of them made her so sad and sick she did not want to ever see them again† (35). Do you not see what she is thinking? They are sucking the life out of me. Why did I choose to get married? I could have been anything, instead I am the mother of this child and the wife of this man and am here to take care of their needs. Who will take care of my needs? She feels that she is some how letting herself ease away and needs to regain her identity. She soon isolates herself even more by moving into another room maybe thinking she will be able to find the part of herself she has lost. â€Å"She was a young queen, a virgin in a tower, she was the previous inhabitant, the girl with all the energies. She tried these personalities on like costumes† (38). Her husband’s constant saying he understands such things only seems to enable her to isolate herself more and ignore her responsibilities as a mother. If the tending to the child is such a pleasure why hasn...

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Case Study Analysis Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Analysis - Case Study Example A Top 10 Risk Item Tracking tool can be applied for maintaining an awareness of the risks involved. The emergency department can rely on the ideas, intuitive feelings and past expert experience of the staff to help identify potential risks. They can perform quantitative risk analysis by using the technique called Monte Carlo analysis. We must keep up with certain quality standards by the help of quality management to ensure that the new services will completely satisfy the needs of each patient efficiently. Incorporating these quality standards into the hospital’s new policies and procedures is very important. Keywords: excessive waiting, risk management, quality management, risk analysis, Monte Carlo analysis, quality standards, Top 10 Risk Item Tracking tool, Patient’s satisfaction. The Hospital Administrator, Physician Director of Emergency Department, Director of Hospital Performance Improvement held a meeting to review and identify the disturbing trends being faced by the patients as well as the staff of the Emergency Department. ... Qualitative risk analysis as well as quantitative risk analysis that included measuring the probability and consequences of risks. Risk response planning and risk monitoring and control which involved monitoring known risks, identifying new risks, reducing risks, and evaluating the effectiveness of risk reduction (PMBOK, 237). The main output of risk management planning is a risk management plan. The ED team should review documents and understand the hospital’s and any sponsor’s approach to risk. The ED team will always have trained staff that will recognize and handle time sensitive conditions as part of their contingency plan. For example, the greeter will always escort chest pain or stroke patients to triage nurse as part of their predefined emergency actions (Power, D.J, Gannon, M. et al., 1986). There can be three kinds of risks in this case study: 1. Market risk: Will the new changes be useful to the hospital’s ED or serviceable to the patients? Will the pa tients accept and use the services? 2. Financial risk: Can the hospital afford to undertake these changes? Are these changes the best way to use the hospital’s financial resources? 3. Technology risk: Are these services technically feasible? Could the technology be obsolete before the end of the 9 months plan? (Maps of World Finance) There are several risk identification tools and techniques that can be used for identifying potential unsatisfactory outcomes. These tools and techniques are: -Brainstorming -Interviewing -The Delphi technique -SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) analysis (Schwalbe K., 2005) A Top 10 Risk Item Tracking tool can be applied for maintaining an awareness of the risks

Thursday, February 6, 2020

The Importance of Critical Thinking to Nursing Graduates Essay - 1

The Importance of Critical Thinking to Nursing Graduates - Essay Example Why do nursing schools highlight critical thinking so much? Why is it so important for nursing graduates to develop this skill? Research provides us with various answers to these questions. For one, nursing graduates on their first year discover that working in a health care facility is not as straightforward as that of nursing school – there are no written instructions, no mentors to guide their every move. Moreover, the various changes in health care institutions require nursing graduates the capacity to learn â€Å"on the job† and to make time-sensitive decisions without compromising quality of service delivery. Fresh out of college, with beautiful dreams on how to help their patients, most nursing graduates tend to underestimate the complexity of their chosen career. In fact, many nursing graduates have created ideals by which they want to base their practice on. These ideals are expressed in terms such as the â€Å"pursuit of patient-centered holistic care, of high quality care and theoretical knowledge, and of evidence-based care† (Wangensteen, 2010, p. 12). But research shows that reality soon catches up with nursing graduates as they strive gain experience from their practice while at the same time struggling to comply with convert rules, and organizational constraints (Maben, Latter, & Clark, 2007). Most new nurses feel no control over their situation as they strive to find their place in the organization. Hence, it is no wonder that most new nurses describe their first year in practice as a year of â€Å"uncertainty and chaos† (Wangensteen, 2010, p. 44). Research shows that whether nursing graduates worked in the hospital or in home care, the experience was the same – first time nurses found it difficult to adjust to their new role because reality was so much more different that what was taught in nursing school. Once working with health care

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Social Media and Politics Essay Example for Free

Social Media and Politics Essay SAbstract a) Purpose The following research paper seeks to understand if social media can be used as an effective tool in politics b) Design/Methodology/Approach: The problem was structured by analyzing the behavior of the stakeholders using a systems approach. The analysis of the model revealed a set of feedback loops operating in the system identified as responsible for the complexity of the problem situation relating to political activism. The study employs various research methods such as systematic method that uses empirical model in analyzing if the political participation is due to causal relationship between online activity and result orientation. It also uses Qualitative case study method where cases of different countries are studied and the data gathered is checked against the theoretical framework in place c) Findings The research revealed that as the number of internet user increases with greater accessibility and usability of social media will facilitate political participation. d) Practical implications The research findings is however skeptical about these revolution was organized online using social media. Social media can be used as low cost medium for organizing but it can be used to transform individuals and cannot guarantee the political empowerment of individuals for future. From the analysis of the various country cases also reveals that social media helped in bringing down the dictatorship but could not help in forming strong political ties that can be used in the reconstruction of the nation in the path of democracy INTRODUCTION Social media are group of applications that runs on internet built using web 2.0 technologies. It allows users to generate content which can be exchanged. Social media applications include blogs, social networking, file and photo sharing. Example: Facebook, Orkut, Twitter, YouTube, Flickr, Slideshare, MySpace etc. Launched in 2004, Facebook has more than 900 million users worldwide while twitter has 500 million accounts Traditionally social capital was built based on strong ties and mutual trust between individuals. But now, social media has brought structural changes to the public sphere. It has become a main source of personal orientation, anonymous interactivities and social communities. With the emergence of IT, weak ties are formed online followed by profit, trust and experience sharing giving birth to online political communities and social media activists. We are in a smart phone era where everyone wants to be a field reporter. The reach of traditional media is on decline and increased use of internet provides cyberspace as a platform that facilitates political communication. Although this media was designed for personal communication, in recent times has been used as political tool. Political speeches, demonstrations are being uploaded on YouTube watched by millions. person with least technical skills can create political content online (blog, Twitter) and can have his share of fame with hundreds of users following his posts. Political demonstrations can be organized with people mobilized online through Facebook, twitter and by sending SMSes. As a testimony to the above said fact were the recent protests in North Africa and Middle East beginning with political upheavals in Tunisia, Egypt and spreading to other parts of the region including Libya, Yemen and Syria. In this paper, we try to explore if social media can be used as an effective tool in politics. Can it make a difference in natural politics and bring about social change? Can it be used as a long term tool to strengthen the civil society and politic sphere? Problem Structuring a) Stake Holder Analysis I. Stakeholder Map II. Specific Stakeholder Chart Government and Regulatory BodyFederal and state governmentsInternet service providersMinistry of information and broadcastingLegal framework for regulation IT Rules 2011| Political partiesBJPCongressRegional parties| Civil societyIndian think tankNon- profit organizationResearch and Education organization| Social media activistsAwareness creatorsAdvocatesOrganizersmobilizers| Foreign GovernmentsG8BRICG20| Consumers of social media contentSilent searchersContributorsConventionalist- focused on discussing informationHobbyists| Traditional mediaPrint mediaTVNews channels| Social media ownersGoogleYahooFacebookMySpace| III. Identification of Stakes b) BOT Graph Previously a wide network was needed to organize mass scale demonstrations against any public policy.. Most often comrades of a party, nonprofit organization or student community had possessed such an organization capability. People formed clusters based on the common ideology or the interest that they shared. Traditional media such as Newspaper, television channels were used to reach people incurring high Transaction cost. literate population is growing with increasing access to technologies like Internet at a cheaper cost makes Social media now a phenomena The following figure shows the intuitive relation between literacy, internet users, political activists and Dictators. It means that as more people are educated, they have the basic skills to user Internet. As the political turmoil increases in a country, people use social media to voice their opinion about political situation in their country. Therefore number of political activists increases. More and number of people join offline the protest which was conceptualized online bring down the dictatorship rule reducing number of dictators. LITERATURE REVIEW 1. Political unrest in Tunisia Research paper â€Å"Emerging role of social media in political and Regime change† by Rita safranek takes a deep insight into the various components of social media. The book takes a look into the issues in the following sections. i. Political unrest in Philippinesii. Political unrest in Iran iii. Political unrest in Tunisia iv. Criticism of Twitter Revolution In 1994, Facebook was created by Harvard student Mark Zuckerberg as a way to connect with his friends on campus. It grew to be large social network with 850 million users in USA alone. Other micro blogging sites like Twitter have been growing steadily since its launch. YouTube provides a platform to share videos. These three big social media were a major Hit because an average person with no computer skills can use it with good success. Social media is a major attraction to the youth because Traditional social economic barrier are broken providing them a level playing field. Social media has been used to form activities of civil societies such as Mobs and civil movements and Several countries has been cited as examples: Philippines, Iran and Tunisia where activists used Facebook, LiveJournal and Twitter to organize protests followed by successful large demonstrations. Rulers in these countries tried to suppress the demonstrations by not allowing traditional media to cover the news and mislead the public by posting erroneous timings and cyber blocks. Though internet was censored cyber activists circulated protest videos among the closed circuit with greater reach. World took a look at these small countries and their political oppressions. Analysts claim success of social media has to do with the affordability (low cost) of technology and conditions of their use (Gender and economics) while critics argue that social media is that the social network is built around weak ties as political participation requires lesser motivation. Twitter has their inbuilt short comings such as word limit of 140 words. Statistics also shows the market penetration of internet in developing countries is minimal when compared to developed countries. Hence not sustainable. 2. Research paper â€Å"Social media and politics: Therortical and methodogical considerations in designing a study of political engagement † by Maja Tunrsek. This paper discusses about nation state polity and global state polity. Pre globalization the nation state regulated all public transactions. Post globalization, power has been transferred outside the nation to economic private powers which gave rise to sovereignty, democracy. As a result, they are facing a deficit in decision making. On an individual level, since they are no more controlled by state polity , they are moving towards individualistic politics such as lifestyle politic, consumerism. In order to convince people on global issues. People started mobilizing people cutting through boundaries by writing blogs, viral marketing, initiating petitions etc. There are several theories explains the impact of social media on democracy. â€Å"Techno optimists† of view that internet is lower the cost of participation. It is providing a platform where individuals can interact with other individuals who share same interest. Public scrutiny of political mandate made easier where the elites and influential people are also under the purview of scrutiny. Techno pessimists counter argue that Internet is a perceived only as legitimate way of democracy. If this trend is followed, politicians will see this as an opportunity to circumvent traditional journalist and reach their audience with tailored content. Now the onus lies on the consumers to evaluate the authenticity of the content they are presented with. Like any other technology, social media also has it pros and cons. Social media alone cannot be made responsible for good democracy and dispersion of neither power nor used tacitly will lead to concentration and abuse of power. These were created based on institutional needs so their impact will depend on the structure and rules of the institution. 3. Research paper â€Å"The impact of social media on Agenda setting in Elections campaign: Cross media and cross national comparisons † by Gunn Enli. This paper throws insight on how media has evolved and its implication on politics. In early 60’s media was dominated by television as medium for political communication and continued domineering for three decades. With the advent of digital technology, political communication took a different direction with more importance laid on mundane and populism. Politician have come of an age and have started using social media as a strategic tool say in election campaigning. Social media and traditional media have differed on various aspects such as reach, issues addressed, debating style and political impact.In past, television has placed a crucial role in setting up political agenda as it was the majority news provide. Media landscape is changed and replaced by cyber space where people spend most of their time and discuss the issues that matter to them the most. Sooner, citizens will comfortable in the liking the Facebook page of their leaders as it would provide and easy and direct way of communicating with him. In developed countries like USA, the scenario is more favorable as the majority of the population has access to internet and tech savvy. The trend of using of Social media for the brand management of leaders, election campaigning, political survey will continue. It also pose a potential threat of content posted online can go viral in a fraction of million second and can cause greater damage to the reputation. Hence should be handled with caution. Research Problem Can social media can be used as an effective tool in politics. Can it make a difference in natural politics and bring about social change? Can it be used as a long term tool to strengthen the civil society and politic sphere? Research Objective The research objective of this paper is to understand the effectiveness of social media in political sphere * role of social media in bringing political revolution in countries like Egypt * relationship between traditional and social media in setting up the political agenda * Using social media in politics of developed economies like USA Research Questions What level of political openness and trust between individuals online can be perceived as political participation? Are we seeing revolutions triggered by the social media because of low transaction cost involved in mobilizing people? Can social media have that impact of transforming individuals? Can it give them competencies that will empower them in politics? Why politicians in few countries have chosen to use social media in their political campaigns What is the dynamics between traditional and social media in setting agenda for election campaigns? Proposed Methodology Methods The proposed methodology is basically based on the research objective. a) The Input- Output Method This method uses a well-known truth that you cannot get something out of nothing. There has to be an input to produce an output. Using this method for research purpose makes the estimation really easy. Technology and inputs are far better defined.. b) Systematic study Factors affecting political participation are studied systematic ally by applying an empirical model O-S-O-R model. According to the O-S- O-R model, the activity of the political participation is a response result arising from a casual relationship between online activity and result orientation. To investigate the study subjects, a survey was conducted. The target population covered male and female adults above the age of 19. Questionnaire was created to capture the relationship between casual variable c) Qualitative case study method Cases of different countries are selected and are analyzed In detail about its features and impact. The data gathered through this method is rich as well as complementary with the theoretical framework such as shareholder’s analysis and casual loop diagram and also was helpful in answering research questions. Each case is taken In isolation analyzing the unique features that led to revolution followed by comparison with case of another country and a parallel is drawn CAUSAL- LOOP Diagram For drawing the causal loop diagram we need to identify the different variables that will impact the effectiveness of social media in politics. Following are the variables: 1) literates 2) internet users 3) Internet regulations 4) Political activists 5) Dictators 6) Social media 7) Traditional media 8) Online political activists 9) Political activism 10) Protests 11) Dictators 12) Tyranny 13) Democracy 14) Internet censorship From the causal loop we can see that there are 2 positive feedback loops(Reinforcing ) and one negative feedback loop(Balancing). Increase in literates will lead to increase in internet users will lead to increase in usage of internet applications such as Facebook, Twiiter. As people identify with likeminded people, they form clusters or communities and share views about common causes, agenda. When the government doesn’t reciprocate the grievances or mundane of the public will lead to more political activism online. These activism will be transformed into demonstrations and protest. If the government tries to suppress political activism through internet censorship will lead to people finding ways to circumvent censorship. Ultimately, state has to bow to the public leading to fall of unpopular regimes. As democracy flourishes, standard of living and thus literacy increases. Limitations of the Study There are few limitations to the study and the research methods adopted is empirical evidence to prove that people who protested in countries like Tunisia and Iran used social media for organizing mob. Few research papers available only suggested that during the revolution, social media played the role of traditional media reporting the events that took place. Similarly no empirical evidence to prove that brand value of a political leader was increased by efficient use of social media during election campaigning References http://www.parl.gc.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-10-e.htm http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/67038/clay-shirky/the-political-power-of-social-media http://articles.washingtonpost.com/2012-01-25/national/35440649_1_pipa-and-sopa-social-media-wikipedia http://overland.org.au/blogs/new-words/2012/10/beyond-twibbons-thinking-about-politics-and-social-media/

Monday, January 20, 2020

The Wolf :: essays research papers

The Wolf Destiny, perhaps from the very beginning, claimed the wolf as a symbol. Has any other animal stirred human passions the way the wolf has? Its haunting howl, its incredible stamina, its brilliant eyes, and its superiority as a predator all have been reviled as nefarious, and even demonic, traits. Ironically, these same characteristics have also been revered as belonging to a majestic, and sometimes spiritual, creature - a symbol of the magnificent, untamed wilderness. In truth, the wolf is neither evil nor exceptionally good - neither demon nor god. Wolves are simply predators. Their role as a predator must not be reduced, however, to that of savage killer. Wolves, like humans, need to eat to survive. In this process, wolves also provide a service: they help preserve nature's delicate balance by keeping herds of deer, elk, moose, and other large mammals in check, as well as keeping these populations strong and genetically viable by preying on the weak and sick. Both the idealized wolf and the demonic wolf are creations of the human mind. It is not easy to transcend the image of the Big Bad Wolf that has filled our myths and legends, but if we know only this wolf we do not truly know the wolf at all. And what we do not know, we fear. Our fear is perhaps the greatest threat to the survival of the wolf, for it causes us to react rather than act, to repel rather than respect. But this fear and hatred did not always separate man and beast Man the hunter once looked on the wolf the hunter with admiration. Man and wolf both used their keen intelligence to overcome the disadvantages they faced in their day-to-day existence. Survival for both was enhanced by hunting and living in groups or packs. And, at one time, the chance of survival for each was also increased by following, learning from, and adapting the skills of the other to its own advantage. As long as man's daily living was earned primarily as a hunter, he knew a respect for wolves, and coexistence was relatively peaceful. Eventually, man and wolf took up together in a process of domestication that brought a different meaning to their coexistence. Even while those early ancestors of man's best friend enjoyed this new relationship, the wolves that did not come in from the cold were beginning to be cast in a different and less favorable light, for the dog was not the only animal toward whom man turned his attention in the early days of animal husbandry.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Legitimacy Crisis Essay

I know that plagiarism is wrong. Plagiarism is to use another’s work and pretend that it is one’s own. 2. I have used the â€Å"Harvard† convention for citation and referencing. Each contribution to, and quotation in, this essay/report/project from the work(s) of other people has been attributed, and has been cited and referenced. 3. This essay/report/project is my own work. 4. I have not allowed, and will not allow, anyone to copy my work with the intention of passing it off as his or her own work. Signature: Jvanrooyn Word Count: 308 excluding in-text citations Jihad Van Rooyen. Introduction to Politics, Tutorial Group #11 12 March 2014 Assignment #3 Legitimacy Crisis Revolutions result in a ubiquitous change in society. This essay ascertains themes throwing legitimacy into crisis through an evaluation of the sources of the French, Russian and Iranian revolutions. As stipulated by Max Weber in his legitimacy crisis ideals, society functions on a moral relationship between the ruler and the ruled (Hague, Harrop & Breslin, 1992:19). Non-acceptance by the ruled would result in a regime losing its legitimacy and pave way for a political break-down. This is emphasized by John Locke in the Social Contract, where he deemed that society has no moral obligation to the regime when the contract is breached (Spragens, 1997:34). Thus, legitimacy certifies political stability and must be lost before any revolution can transpire. The French Revolution was based on the constitutional and monetary crises, which lead to instability. Thus through the failure of the regime to meet demands, legitimacy was lost and a secular revolution followed (Hague, Harrop & Breslin, 1992:72). Relative deprivation was an immediate by-factor, clearly evident through the revolts against the structural conditions, which ultimately abolished absolute monarchy in France (Hague, Harrop & Breslin, 1992:74). Similarly to the French revolution, the Russian overthrowing of the old political system proved easier than consolidating power (Hague, Harrop & Breslin, 1992:79), especially after both revolutions were influenced by the regime’s spending on warfare. Both revolutions involved peasants uprising, owing to hunger, poverty and social inequality. The Tsar was not able to meet the demands of the citizens and in so doing lost credibility. In contrast, Iran’s old regime had not been ravaged by warfare nor had it suffered monetary failure, prior to its revolution (Hague, Harrop & Breslin, 1992:79). The revolution was a religious affair against the regime. Like the previous two revolutions, expectations amongst the people were not met by the regime. In conclusion, when a regime doesn’t fulfill its moral obligation to the people or if they do not meet the expectation of the citizens, relative deprivation could occur which could ultimately result in illegitimacy and a revolution.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Common Stereotypes About Africa

In the 21st century, there’s never been more focus on Africa than now. Thanks to the revolutions sweeping through North Africa and the Middle East, Africa has the world’s attention. But just because all eyes happen to be on Africa at the moment doesn’t mean myths about this part of the world have been dispelled. Despite the intense interest in Africa today, racial stereotypes about it persist. Do you have any misperceptions about Africa? This list of common myths about Africa aims to clear them up. Africa Is a Country What’s the No. 1 stereotype about Africa? Arguably, the biggest stereotype is that Africa’s not a continent, but a country. Ever hear someone refer to African food or African art or even the African language? Such individuals have no idea that Africa’s the second largest continent in the world. Instead, they view it as a tiny country with no distinct traditions, cultures or ethnic groups. They fail to realize that referring to, say, African food sounds just as odd as referring to North American food or the North American language or the North American people. Africa’s home to 53 countries, including island nations along the continent’s coast. These countries contain diverse groups of people who speak a variety of languages and practice a wide range of customs. Take Nigeria—Africa’s most populous country. Among the nation’s population of 152 million, more than 250 distinct ethnic groups live. While English is the former British colonys official language, the dialects of ethnic groups indigenous to the West African nation, such as Yoruba, Hausa, and Igbo, are commonly spoken as well. To boot, Nigerians practice Christianity, Islam and indigenous religions. So much for the myth that all Africans are alike. The most populated nation on the continent certainly proves otherwise. All Africans Look the Same If you turn to popular culture for images of people on the African continent, you’re likely to notice a pattern. Time and time again, Africans are depicted as if they’re one and the same. You’ll see Africans portrayed wearing face paint and animal print and all with nearly pitch black skin. The controversy surrounding singer Beyonce Knowles’ decision to don black face for French magazine L’Officiel is a case in point. In a photo shoot for the magazine described as â€Å"a return to her African roots,† Knowles darkened her skin to a deep brown, wore splotches of blue and beige paint on her cheekbones and leopard print clothing, not to mention a necklace made out of bone-like material. The fashion spread sparked public outcry for a number of reasons. For one, Knowles portrays no particular African ethnic group in the spread, so which roots did she pay tribute to during the shoot? The generic African heritage L’Officiel claims Knowles honors in the spread really just amounts to racial stereotyping. Do some groups in Africa wear face paint? Sure, but not all do. And the leopard print clothing? That’s not a look favored by indigenous African groups. It simply highlights that the Western world commonly views Africans as tribal and untamed. As for the skin-darkening—Africans, even sub-Saharan ones, have a range of skin tones, hair textures, and other physical traits. This is why some people pegged L’Officiel’s decision to darken Knowles’ skin for the shoot unnecessary. After all, not every African is black-skinned. As Dodai Stewart of Jezebel.com put it: â€Å"When you paint your face darker in order to look more ‘African,’ aren’t you reducing an entire continent, full of different nations, tribes, cultures, and histories, into one brown color?† Egypt Isn’t Part of Africa Geographically, there’s no question: Egypt sits squarely in Northeast Africa. Specifically, it borders Libya to the West, Sudan to the South, the Mediterranean Sea to the North, the Red Sea to the East and Israel and the Gaza Strip to the Northeast. Despite its location, Egypt is often not described as an African nation, but as Middle Eastern—the region where Europe, Africa, and Asia meet. This omission stems mostly from the fact that Egypt’s population of more than 80 million is heavily Arab—with up to 100,000 Nubians in the South—a drastic difference from the population of sub-Saharan Africa. Complicating matters is that Arabs tend to be classified as Caucasian. According to scientific research, the ancient Egyptians—known for their pyramids and sophisticated civilization—were neither European nor sub-Saharan African biologically, but a genetically distinct group. In one study cited by John H. Relethford in the Fundamentals of Biological Anthropology, ancient skulls belonging to populations from sub-Saharan Africa, Europe, the Far East and Australia were compared to determine the racial origin of ancient Egyptians. If Egyptians did indeed originate in Europe, their skull samples would closely match those of ancient Europeans. Researchers found, however, that this wasn’t the case. But the Egyptian skull samples weren’t similar to those of sub-Saharan Africans either. Rather, â€Å"the ancient Egyptians are Egyptian,† Relethford writes. In other words, Egyptians are an ethnically unique people. These people happen to be situated on the African continent, though. Their existence reveals Africa’s diversity. Africa Is All Jungle Never mind that the Sahara Desert makes up one-third of Africa. Thanks to Tarzan films and other cinematic portrayals of Africa, many mistakenly believe that jungle occupies most of the continent and that ferocious beasts roam its entire landscape. Black activist Malcolm X, who visited several African countries before his assassination in 1965, took issue with this depiction. He not only discussed Western stereotypes of Africa but also how such stereotypes resulted in black Americans distancing themselves from the continent. â€Å"They always project Africa in a negative light: jungle savages, cannibals, nothing civilized,† he  pointed out. In reality, Africa houses  a wide range of vegetation zones. Only a small portion of the continent includes jungle or rainforests. These tropical areas are located along the Guinea Coast and in the Zaire River Basin. Africa’s largest vegetation zone is actually savanna or tropical grassland. Moreover, Africa’s home to urban centers with populations in the multimillions, including Cairo, Egypt; Lagos, Nigeria; and Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. By 2025, more than half of the African population will reside in cities, according to  some estimates. Black American Slaves Came From All Over Africa Largely due to the misconception that Africa’s a country, it’s not uncommon for people to assume that black Americans have ancestors from all over the continent. In reality, the slaves traded throughout the Americas originated specifically along Africa’s western coast. For the first time, Portuguese sailors who’d previously traveled to Africa for gold returned to Europe with 10 African slaves in 1442, PBS  reports. Four decades later, the Portuguese built a trading post on the Guinean shore called Elmina, or â€Å"the mine† in Portuguese. There, gold, ivory, and other goods were traded along with African slaves—exported for weapons, mirrors, and cloth, to name a few. Before long, Dutch and English ships began arriving at Elmina for African slaves as well. By 1619, Europeans had forced a million slaves into the Americas. Altogether, 10 to 12 million Africans were forced into servitude in the New World. These Africans were â€Å"either captured in warring raids or kidnapped and taken to the port by African slave traders,† PBS notes. Yes, West Africans played a key role in the transatlantic slave trade. For these Africans, slavery was nothing new, but African slavery in no way resembled North and South American slavery. In his book, the  African Slave Trade, Basil Davidson likens slavery on the African continent to European serfdom. Take the Ashanti Kingdom of West Africa, where â€Å"slaves could marry, own property and even own slaves,† PBS explains. Slaves in the United States enjoyed no such privileges. Moreover, while slavery in the U.S. was linked to skin color—with blacks as servants and whites as masters—racism was not the impetus for slavery in Africa. Plus, like indentured servants, slaves in Africa were typically released from bondage after a set amount of time. Accordingly, slavery in Africa never lasted across generations. Wrapping Up Many myths  about Africa date back centuries. In the modern day, new stereotypes about the continent have emerged. Thanks to a sensationalistic news media, people worldwide associate Africa with famine, war, AIDS, poverty and political corruption. This isn’t to say that such problems don’t exist in Africa. Of course, they do. But even in a nation as wealthy as the United States, hunger, abuse of power and chronic illness factor into everyday life. While the continent of Africa faces enormous challenges, not every African is in need, nor is every African nation in crisis. Source Relethford, John. Fundamentals of Biological Anthropology. 2 edition, McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages, October 18, 1996.