Wednesday, November 27, 2019
The Film, witness, shows the audience a clash of different cultures that come together briefly but cannot mix free essay sample
It is clear that the clash of the Amish and mainstream American society cannot mix, as shown in the film Witness. Although the cultures meet out of necessity in the film, the relationship between John Book and Rachel Lapp doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t eventuate, Eli and Book disagree on their ideas of justice, and the lifestyles of the two different societies are often incompatible. (When Samuel is involved in the murder it is quite incompatible that they have to stay in the city without any family support and also have to stay with Elaine). John and RachelÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship does not eventuate much as they are both from different cultures which makes it difficult. There are many scenes that John and Rachel appear together in. The first time is after Samuel had witnessed the murder in the toilet cubical. It was an awkward start to their relationship as Rachel did not want her son involved in a questioning with a strange man. We will write a custom essay sample on The Film, witness, shows the audience a clash of different cultures that come together briefly but cannot mix or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page She was on her way to see her sister. Been told she had to wait so her son could be questioned was not the plan. Throughout the film their relationship becomes stronger but because of the different cultures that they come from it would be very difficult for them to actually be in a relationship. The cultural backgrounds would mean having to make other sacrifices. This is why this is an example of people and cultures that come together but canÃ¢â¬â¢t mix. Eli and Book disagree on their ideas of justice. The difference between the Amish and the Ã¢â¬Å"EnglishÃ¢â¬ is often shown to be incompatible in Witness. One such occasion when this occurs is in the scene where Rachel and Samuel accompany Book to the police station shortly after the murder investigation starts. Rachel is not happy with exposing her son to an atmosphere of violence, as shown by her stern body language and her displeasure of being around Book, who she says seems to enjoy Ã¢â¬Å"whacking peopleÃ¢â¬ . The aggressive policing tactics used by book in the investigation do not agree the Amish view that violence is never the answer. The clash of violent and non-violent societies in Witness shows that the Amish and mainstream Americans are not compatible. The Film, witness, shows the audience a clash of Amish and mainstream American society cultures that come together briefly but cannot mix. This is shown by the relationships that canÃ¢â¬â¢t go ahead because of the sacrifices that would have to be made for the relationship. Also the way that each of the cultures act towards punishment caused quite a lot of tension. Characters/ cultures clashing. Within the film there are definitely cultures that come together that should not stay together. ?
Saturday, November 23, 2019
A Runners Guide to Writing Writers, Even though it may cut into your writing time, picking up a running habit can help you become a more motivated, disciplined, and well-paid writer. Heres my advice for running and writing: 1. Just thinking about it doesnt get you anywhere. With both running and writing, you have to actually do the work, and not just think Boy, I should really do some work today. In both running and writing, its easier to keep up your pace and good habits when youve got plenty of momentum. If you need a little help getting started, Fitness Magazines Running 101Ã guide is a great place for beginning runners to get their bearings. 2. Consistent work is required to make progress. You are never going to beat any personal bests when it comes to running speed unless you run on a regular basis. Likewise, you arent going to finish that novel without putting in regular effort. If you go too long between sessions, itll almost feel like you have to start from scratch. 3. It doesnt have to be a solo pursuit. Some athletes prefer to run alone, but others prefer to run with a group. Likewise, while writing does require some degree of isolation, you can find the support you need to keep you motivated through social connections. Try doing a work-in-progress readings at your local bookstore, or workshopping your piece with a local writers group. 4. Youll hurt yourself if you go at it too hard. Run too long or too hard, and youll risk an injury. Carpal tunnel jokes aside, this applies to writers as well, who can burn themselves out when working under a tight deadline. Even marathon runners take a break the day after a race: If you can bang out 40 pages in one day, thats awesome, but give your brain (and your fingers) some time to recuperate afterwards. 5. Do it, rain or shine. Once you have a streak going, you wont want to break it. A little rain shouldnt stop you from running, and it will even make you feel happy on a dreary day. Likewise, forcing yourself to write a page or two on a day when you mental weather is a bit gloomy is a great way to feel like youre in control of your future as a writer. Once youve developed discipline, its almost like the work does itself. Ill always remember the day I went out on a casual jog, looked down at my phone, and saw Id run a 10k without even trying to. Likewise, with disciplined writing habits inspired Picked up a running habit? Write about your experiences for one of these fitness magazines: Runners World Submission Guidelines TrailRunner Magazine Submission Guidelines Canadian Running Submission Guidelines Womens Running Submission Guidelines Womens Adventure Submission Guidelines
Thursday, November 21, 2019
NSB224 RESEARCH APPROACHES IN NURSING - Essay Example (2). The abstract is a very important paragraph of the article. The length of the abstract is based on the journal for which the article is written, and normally does not extend beyond 250 words. This makes precision in the use of words and coherence of the matter important elements of the abstract. It is written as a single paragraph without references, providing the substance of the article. From such a perspective of a good abstract, the abstract the article can be rated as good. (3) The introduction is usually a few paragraphs in length written with the purpose of introducing the issue being investigated by the article, the relevance of the issue to the health care services and nursing. The problem of debilitation associated with hemodialysis is clearly mentioned at the outset, though not easily identifiable, owing to the structure of the introduction, wherein a number of issues are brought in one after the other. The problem is of significance to nursing, as it is nursing care that is essentially involved in patients on hemodialysis recovering their functional abilities and improving their well-being. (3). The main purpose of the literature review is to provide an understanding of what is known on the health subject or health problem. In doing so it gives clarity to the deficits in the current understanding of the health subject and how the article contributes to enhancing the understanding of the subject or problem. A good literature review draws information from reliable sources like peer-reviewed journal articles and books on the subject. It does not just summarize the information from these resources, but critically evaluates the information and looks at the connection of the information provide by these resources with regard to the topic of the article. In this way the literature review links the information from the different sources, provides
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Illegal Immigration Issue - Research Paper Example To support my argument, the adverse effects brought about by illegal immigration, particularly in terms of employment displacement of citizens and incurring of additional social security expenditures of the government, are highlighted. Through the media, the concept of illegal immigration has been highly romanticized. Illegal aliens, as illegal immigrants are commonly referred to, are portrayed as the hardworking border-crossers who strive to provide for their families left behind (Weissinger). Many feel sympathy for the plight of these people who risk their own lives in search of greener pastures. This is the same emotion elicited in me during an interview with Mr. Diaz, an illegal immigrant from Mexico who has been working in a local retail store for a year now. Barely able to speak vocational English, he narrated how extreme poverty in their homeland has impelled him to look for a decent job across the border. With his job, he is able to send money to his family with the salary he currently earns, a far cry from how much he would have gotten in Mexico. In the perception of US-based employers, illegal immigrants are viewed as a cheap source of unskilled labor, which they could easily tap (Hanson). Note that illegal aliens, given their desperation to immediately land jobs, willingly accept relatively lower wages as compared to the local labor force ("Costs of Immigration"). Others believe that illegal immigration is actually a win-win situation, wherein the poor country from where the illegal alien originated obtains dollars from remittances, while the host nation takes advantage of lower labor cost with the large worker pool made available (Hanson).Ã Given these perceptions, the true issues directly related to illegal immigration are obscured. The subsequent sections reveal what lies beneath the common belief and shed lights on the effects of immigration on government expenditure, population growth and on other economic factors (Siew-Ean).
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Composing Exercise Program Essay This is a composing exercise program. This will only work on the computer. The way this program works is very simple. All the poems from Shijing have already been stored within the application itself, and users can choose and open any poems that they want among the list. Since the Shijing has over hundreds of poems, they have been classified according to categories to facilitate the search. The categories can be further narrowed down so suit the userÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. The poems can be chosen according to the music that the users have in mind. Once the poem has been chosen, then the program allows you to interpose music on the poem. When you are ready to compose, simply click the Ã¢â¬Å"start composeÃ¢â¬ button, and you will see blank music paper on the screen. Decide where you want to put your note and simply click on the music paper, then the note will appear on the screen. If you right click on one specific note, you can choose its length or measure. After you are done composing, you can store your composed music into the program. You can re-do your work on the same poem without deleting the previous files and also you can continue working on the same music if you closed the programs before you were finished. Basically saving files in the program works just same as saving any other file in your. This program also contains a built in audio processing system so that you can listen to the music while you are composing it, making changes whenever necessary. The point of this program is to give users the chance to experience different genres of poems (lyrics). Shijing is the perfect collection because of the wide variety of poems used. The challenge is the choice of music to use on the poems. Because every poem has a different emotion, the creativity of the user is given the chance to come out and develop. Every single poem evokes different insights and emotions, thus affecting the music as well. Sometimes poems will be very personal and sometimes poems will be very political. The poems are already written and the challenge is to make it come alive with music. Target: Anyone who is interested in music and wants to give composing a try. Feasibility: There are many composing programs out in the market but none with poems or lyrics pre-stored. Moreover, most of them are targeted for expert musicians. This application will help beginners and experts alike focus on the creation of music because the lyrics have already been pre-set. Relevance: I believe that this project has some relevance to Confucian studies because it allows users to look at the Shijing poems in a different light and have unique and new perspectives about it. This provides a deeper appreciation for the poems and may inspire people to study them more.
Friday, November 15, 2019
Economic recovery program of Ghana CHAPTER ONE 1.0 Introduction This chapter attempts to provide an overview on the problem statement of the entire research work, objectives of the study, relevance of the study, methodology applied as the research unfolds and the organization of the study. 1.1 Background Ghana is one of the fast emerging developing countries in West Africa with twice the per capita output of the poorer countries in West Africa. With well endowed natural resources, Ghana still relies heavily on international financial and technical assistance. Gold, cocoa and timber are the major sources of foreign exchange. The introduction of Ghanas Economic Recovery Program (ERP) in 1983 to recover the initially very weak private sector participation did improve consistently but although still levels were modest during 1987-91. Over the past years Ghana has witnessed dynamic changes in its private Sector. The number of banks has increased from 9 in 1989 to 21 at May 2006 (www.bog.gov.gh). These banks serve a prominent role as corporate entities that provide investment capital in the economy to support employment opportunities, human resources development and contribute towards national and community development programmes (Aryeetey, E. Gockel, F. 1990). They primarily furnish loans to individuals and companies to finance various projects which lead to economic and private sector development. Brownbridge, M., Gockel, A.F. (1997) are also of the view that these financial institutions support savings and investment in the economy, which plays a major role in the overall development in terms of increasing productivity of resources in the economy. They further highlighted that this role of banks in the Ghanaian economy is crucial, in that shortcomings in the industry directly affect the trend of economic growth. In recent times Ghana has discovered crude oil, which is expected to boost the economic growth by bigger margins. Ghana has a unique welcoming attitude towards foreign investors; the long political stability of the country has attracted a lot of business investors to establish businesses in the country. The rate of foreign investors has not reduced as better prospects in doing business in Ghana are yielded in the long-run. The political state of the country has also been very peaceful with a vibrant atmosphere to establish businesses. During the fifth banking awards ceremony in Accra, Dr. Paul Acquah (Governor of Bank of Ghana) revealed that the banking industry in Ghana has become highly competitive due to the increased sophistication of customer needs coupled with tremendous global competition. He further stated that these reasons over the years have been the driving force for banks, in particular private owned banks, to focus on increasing shareholders value, delivering superior services aimed at achieving over all customer satisfaction and value. The concept of competition has introduced an overwhelming challenge among organisations worldwide. Most organisations are forced to compete by promptly responding to changes in national and world economies, technological changes, new business environments, cultural diversity and deregulation in emerging capital markets to improve overall organisational performance. Privately owned businesses in Ghana are constantly entwined in this fierce battle of global competition and the pressing need to sustain its existence in the growing rate of change in its environment. Recent trends in the Ghanaian economy have revealed that keen competition in the business sector has been as a result of an open market which promotes private sector participation. Though most private owned organisations have managed to survived, a considerable number of them do fail due to reasons not limited to economical and financial factors. A study conducted by Dun and Bradstreet (cited by Gaughan Patrick A. 1999, pp. 432) reveals that there are three most common factors that cause business failure such as economic, financial and experience factors (refer to Table 1). In some developing countries market forces are completely eliminated as a result of controls imposed by the ruling governments. These controls create adverse effects on the economy such as large fiscal deficits coupled with weak macroeconomic management leading to high inflation in the economy. The consequences are generally felt by banks and other non-banking institutions, in that, loans borrowed by individuals or organisations are not paid back due to economic hardship (Brownbridge M., Gockel A.F., 1997). According to Pfeffer J. (1994; p. 6), People and how organisations manage them are becoming more important because many other sources of competitive success are less powerful than they once were. He emphasises the fact that in recent times most organisations rely extensively on the traditional sources of competitive success such as product and process technology, regulated markets, access to capital resources, and economies of scale which provide an insignificant competitive influence as compared to the past. He further argues that organisational culture and potential employee contributions derived from managing employees in an organisation are crucial as compared to the traditional sources of competitive success. Employees have been referred to as assets to a firm or an organisation when they possess the right skills needed to work effectively and efficiently (Odiorne G. S, 1984). However, these employees may possess diverse capabilities that lead to various potential contributions to an organisation because of previous education, experience, or individual qualities. In view of the fact that employees contribution to the organisation determines extensively competitive success, their individual skills are considered vital (Pfeffer J. 1994). 1.2 Problem Statement The gradual transformation of Ghana has had a lot of positive feedback from other nations, but will this transformation termed economic growth survive the long-term or would it collapse somewhere in the future? What are the main strengths and weaknesses of the private sector? Will the private sector support sustainable development? Has Ghanas initiative to increase private sector participation been successful? What measures has Ghana taken liberalize its economy to encourage private sector participation? Recent discovery of crude oil (black gold) in Ghana has brought higher hopes to accelerating the countries development goals into reality. This is what the recent ex-president of Ghana, President John Kufuor had to say in an African programme with the BBCs Focus Were going to really zoom, accelerate, and if everything works, which I pray will happen positively, you come back in five years, and youll see that Ghana truly is the African tiger, in economic terms for development. Will this oil discovery further attract new entrants into the financial sector and in the affirmative will this promote a competitive private sector environment? 1.3 Objectives of the Study The main objective of this thesis is to show the role of the private sector in contributing to business competitiveness and economic growth. The research limits its focus on the inflow of private non-financial and financial institutions in the Ghanaian economy as a result of the introduction of Financial Sector Adjustment Programme (FINSAP) in Ghana. The economy over the years has witnessed an increase in private sector participation, which has significantly promoted business competitiveness and contributed to a vibrant economy at large. Table 2: SMART Objective of the Study Strategic Operation Tactical Specific Evaluate the role of the private sector (Privately owned financial institution) contributing to business competitiveness and economic growth. Present a platform for private sector participation in economic development. Provide a primary evaluation for developers and investors who aspire to do business in Ghana. Measurable To fall within the framework of the private sector and factors leading to business competitiveness and economic growth. Increase real GDP. Impact of the private sector on economic growth. Note government policies that would prevent adverse effects on critical sectors of the economy. Attainable To recommend effective and sustainable business development strategy and policies that will enhance more participation in the private sector. Increase economic growth and improve effective and efficient business plans. Embark on comprehensive business competitiveness and productive performance within the various business sectors. Realistic The research will look extensively into government development goals as well as the private sectors role in development. Access to economic reports surveys from IMF. Ghana Government reports on development projects. The IMF monitors on a yearly basis the economic situation in Ghana. Time-Limited To complete the thesis within two months. This thesis expects to propose recommendation based on the information available at the time of writing. The recommendations and proposals are expected to be considered and if applicable implemented by other developing countries as well. Source: Self-prepared. Specifically, the thesis critically focuses on the following: The role of the private sector (privately owned financial institutions) contributing to economic growth in Ghana. To investigate the driving forces of Ghanas emerging markets. The role of the government promoting the private sector. The challenges and constraints facing the private sector. To evaluate the strategies being employed by Ghana in the private sector and its impact on the economy. 1.4 Significance of the Study The study will be beneficial in many respects: To help identify the success and bottlenecks of the significant economic contributions from private sector with regards to its contribution to economic growth business competiveness. It also reviews the strengths of the financial sector to support expansion of the private sector development and more importantly availability of credit facilities to promote businesses. It will help investors to get a fair idea of business establishment opportunities. To help formulate strategies to help implement better policies and promotions for the private sector development. 1.5 Methodology This study uses secondary data and literature to evaluate the topic. It also uses SWOT analysis to examine the strategic position of Ghana in improving its economic and business areas. The research will employ the use of CAMEL approach as the overall framework to evaluate the financial strength and stability of the Banking Industry in Ghana, where; C Capital adequacy, A Asset quality, M Management capability, E Quality and level of earnings, L Adequacy of liquidity 1.6 Organisation of the study The paper is divided into five chapters. Chapter one presents the introduction, problem statement, objectives of the study, significance of the study, methodology and the organisation of the study. Chapter two gives an overview of the Ghanaian financial sector as well as reasons that led to the financial sector reforms. Chapter three gives an overview of the Ghanaian private sector. Chapter four uses CAMEL approach to analyse 4 major privately owned financial institutions. The final chapter looks at the overall findings, conclusions and recommendations. CHAPTER TWO 2.0 Overview of the Ghanaian economy This chapter provides an overview of the Ghanaian economy and the Ghanaian Financial System. The chapter also looks at reasons that led to the introduction of the financial sector reforms, a SWOT analysis of financial sector adjustment program (FINSAP I II). Ghana is one of the developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa that introduced structural and economic reforms to address its extensive macroeconomic shortcomings, reduce poverty and to liberalize the financial sector. The broad money/GDP ratio fell significantly to 12.5% in 1983 as compared to 29% in 1976, whiles currency/M2 ratio also decreased from 35% in 1970 to 50% in 1983. Bank deposits decreased from 19.5% of GDP in 1977 to 7.4% of GDP in 1984 because there was lack of confidence in the banking industry (Brownbridge, M., Gockel, A. F. 1997). During the 1980s the Ghanaian economy was hit by the most devastating economic crisis (www.bog.gov.gh). This gave rise to numerous extensive economic drawbacks in the Ghanaian economy. Leechor Chad reveals in an article published by the World Bank the following economic crisis that plagued the Ghanaian economy between the years 1982 to 1983: The countrys power systems, communication, postal and railway services ceased to function properly and the whole country was in a state of chaos. Tax collection had declined to about 5% to GDP, investment dropped drastically beyond the level required to maintain capital stock. Real income per capita which was continuously diminishing for a decade was a third below the level reached in the early 70s as at 1983. Foreign exchange reserves deteriorated considerably. The Ghanaian economy was heavily controlled by the government in terms of setting unrealistic interest rates and sectoral credit ceilings; banks were forced to focus on lending to priority sectors (agriculture, export and manufacturing) regardless of the borrowers performance in terms of profitability and their capability to payback the loan. The economy was regulated to foreign investments and the strong existence of strict capital flow regulations (The Corporate Guardian, July-September 2006). Governments heavy intervention in the financial system set the stage for economic shortcomings a few such as lack of competition, high incidence of inefficiency, hardship and the escalating rate of non-performing loans (Leith, C. J., Sderling, L. 2000). Since the late 1980s, the government of Ghana continued to implement financial sector reforms as an integral part of its ongoing Economic Recovery Program (ERP) (Brownbridge, M., Gockel, A. F. 1997). Ghanas enthusiasm to initiate the ERP with close collaboration with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) during the year 1983-85 was to liberalise the financial sector and establish an open market-based economy by eliminating price ceilings, reducing the influx of foreign imports, diversifying viable sectors of the economy and stabilizing fiscal deficit. Ghana in 1984 launched the Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) with the primary aim of reducing its involvement in the economy and allowing the free interaction of demand and supply (The Corporate Guardian, July-September 2006). However, during the period 1983-88 the performance of the banking industry deteriorated with high levels of non-performing assets (NPAs) and inefficient deposit mobilization which made most public banks insolve nt (Leith, C. J., Sderling, L. 2000). The government launched the first phase of the Financial Sector Adjustment Program (FINSAP) in 1988. This was to fully deregulate as well as liberalize the financial sector and improve resource allocation within the various sectors of the economy (www.oecd.org). Since 1983, Ghana has attached great importance to its divestiture initiative program. About 200 stated-owned enterprises (SOEs) were being considered for diversification under governments ongoing privatization initiative. At the end of the last two years, government still owned 35 enterprises valued at more than 60% of GDP in 2003 (IMF Survey, 2005). Governments expenditure during 1986-1991 increased and this called for policy reforms to enable government to meet its high spending. Government depended on the tax system to support its high level of spending. The Parliament of Ghana in 1993 increased tax on petroleum. However, the tax system could not supplement its GDP share to match the expenditure. Consequently this brought about deficit financing. Government resorted to other forms of financing its expenditure such as extensive borrowing from the Central Bank (issuing new notes), public and foreign borrowing, and privatization of sate-owned enterprises (Leith, C. J., Sderling, L. 2000). Over the years, Ghana has witnessed a massive transformation in its economy as a result of continuous implementation of financial sector reforms to deregulate the economy and stimulate savings, investment and growth. The Central Bank is constantly implementing policies adopted under FINSAP to ensure the entrants of privately owned financial institutions, free interest rates, stabilize the cedi against foreign currencies, encourage the flow of foreign investment and allow easier access to credits (www.bog.gov.gh). The Ghana Stock Exchange (GSE) was set up in 1989 as a private company limited under the Company code. The Stock Exchange act of 1971 (Act 384) allowed it to function as an authorized Stock Exchange. The Securities Industry Law PNDCL 333 (1993) as amended bestowed regulatory rights to the Security Regulatory Commission (SRC) with its main function to register, protect, assist and supervise all stakeholders in the securities market. In April 1994 the Ghana Stock Exchanges status became a public company limited (www.gse.co.gh). At the end of 2003, listed companies equity increased to 26 as compared to 22 in 2002 (www.gipc.org.gh). The performance of the Ghana Stock Exchange (GSE) has improved tremendously. All-share Index increased by 91.3% in 2005 as compared to 154.7% in 2003 (ISSER 2005). Flow of foreign investment increased from $110.0 million in 2003 to $139.3 million in 2004. In 2004 the cedi depreciated by only 2.2% against the US dollar, 10.7% against the Euro and 12.1% against the pound sterling. There was quite an improvement in the value of the cedi as compared to the previous year (2003) when the cedi depreciated by 22.5% against the Euro and 13.0% against the pound sterling. Average inflation fell from 26.7% in 2003 to 12.6% as at December 2004 (ISSER 2005). Ghana is the second largest producer and exporter of cocoa; the agriculture sector accounts for about 50% of GDP and is considered the backbone of economic development (www.ghanaweb.com). Real GDP growth in 2004 was 5.8% (www.gipc.gh). The tremendous performance of the Agricultural sector has supported Ghanas remarkable rate of economic growth over the years. The Agricultural sector contributes significantly to GDP growth. In 1990 GDP increased by only 3.3%, this was due to the negative 2% growth rate in the Agricultural sector that year. The year 1991 witnessed a GDP growth rate for the Agricultural sector by 5.8% which consequently increased the whole Ghanaian economy GDP by 5.3% in that year. The sector has also contributed immensely to the countrys foreign exchange earnings; 38.5% in 1999, 35.4% in 2000, 33.9% in 2001, 35.5% in 2002. (www.fao.org/es/esa). Other main exports are gold, timber, bauxite, manganese ore and diamond (BOG Quarterly Economic Bulletin, April June 2005). The performance of the agriculture sector over the years has immensely improved with growth rate of 7.5% in 2004 as compared to 6.1% in 2003. The production of cocoa for export contributed 46.7% during the year 2004, a significant portion of over all growth (ISSER 2005). The crops and livestock contribution increased from 2.3% in 2003 to 5.4% in 2004, the largest contribution to the agricultural sectors GDP. The forestry and logging sub-sectors increased by 6.1% in 2003, but dropped with a growth rate of 5.8% in 2004. (www.gipc.org.gh).The elimination of maximum lending rates and minimum time deposit rates succeeded to some extent in the liberalization of interest rates in 1987. Direct controls in the form of credit ceilings were also abolished. During the 1990s banks were at liberty to price deposits and loans and to distribute loans accordingly; however the Bank of Ghanas high reserve requirement limited the funds available for allocation (Brownbridge M. Gockel A. F 1997). These h igh reserve requirements prevented banks from developing their loan portfolios and consequently, most banks preferred to invest in attractive and somewhat risk-free government securities (strategis.ic.gc.ca) Interest rate dropped steadily owing to the Monetary Policy Committee (set up by the Bank of Ghana in 2004) decreasing prime rate from 21.5% in 2003 to 18.5% in 2004. Consequently, the commercial banks base rate has decreased from 29% to 25.4%. Interest rate for 91-Treasury bill fell from 18.71% early part of the year to 17.08% at the end of 2004. Interest rates for the 182-Day Treasury bill dropped from 19.78% during the early part of the year to 17.85% at the end of 2004. Inter-Bank interest rate also fell from 17.12% in January to 16.23% at the close of the year 2004 (www.gipc.org.gh) The Banks spread (21.3%) is still too high as compared to the other African countries (see table 3*). The banking industry has been structured in a way that banks are able to adjust their interest rates according to policy rates. Banks maintain a high spread to ensure that their profits are not significantly influenced by their interest margins (BOG financial stability report 2004). However, according to the BOG financial stability report 2006 the emergence of new banks will lead to an efficient financial sector which is expected to reduce the pressure on lending spread due to the fact that banks will continuously try to gain market share by competing for customers. Table 3: Selected Commercial Bank Interest Rates, 2000 and 2004 Deposit Rate Lending Rate Spread 2000 2004 2000 2004 2000 2004 Gabon 5.0 5.0 22.0 18.0 17.0 13.0 Ghana 16.8 7.5 47.0 28.8 30.2 21.3* Kenya 8.1 2.4 22.3 12.5 14.2 10.1 Mauritius 9.6 8.2 20.8 21.0 11.2 12.8 Mozambique 9.7 9.9 19.0 19.2 9.3 9.3 Nigeria 11.7 13.7 21.3 19.2 9.6 5.5 Tanzania 7.4 4.2 21.6 13.9 14.2 9.7 Uganda 9.8 7.7 22.9 20.6 13.1 12.9 Zambia 20.2 11.5 38.8 30.7 18.6 19.2 Source : International Financial Statistics, IMF Fiscal and Monetary Policy The financial policies implemented by monetary authorities in Ghana before the implementation of FINSAP were direct government controls on all sectors of the economy. Government excessive control in the economy by setting price and interest ceilings coupled with weak macroeconomic problems lead to a high level of inflation (Ziorklui, S. Q. 2001). Ghanas fiscal policy primarily aims at decreasing domestic debt, ensuring economic stability, cutting down on the increasing level of interest payments to achieve the required real interest rates. Consequently, the Bank of Ghana has adopted numerous strategies to address fiscal deficit and governments borrowing (www.gipc.org). Budget deficit was 0.55% of GDP during the second quarter of the year 2005 as compared to 1.18% of GDP during the last quarter of 2004. This showed significant decrease in the overall budget balance (Bank of Ghana Quarterly economic bulletin, April-June 2005). The Bank of Ghana in 2004 set up the Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) to mainly focus on formulating effective monetary policies, making available statistical data and providing necessary support in terms of advise for monetary policy formulation (www.bog.gov.gh). The MPC seeks to control inflation, stabilize price and exchange market, manage external debt and develop the capital market (www.gipc.org.gh). 2.1 The Ghanaian Financial System in Brief Ghanas banking sector has evolved over the years. There are 23 major banks (refer to table 7) operating in the banking sector in Ghana as at 2006. The Ghanaian banking sector is made up of 19 universal banks, 2 Development Banks, 2 Commercial banks including Apex Bank and 121 Rural Banks (www.bog.gov.gh). The introduction of universal banking in Ghana is overwhelmingly changing the way banks function in the economy. Unfortunately, not all banks operating in Ghana are eligible to be universal banks. To be eligible for banks to operate as universal banks they are expected to have at least 70 billion as shareholders capital (www.agighana.org). According to the Bank of Ghana universal banking substitutes the famous three-pillar banking model, namely development, merchant and commercial. Table 4: List of Major Banks in Ghana 2006 INITIALS BANK DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT NATURE OF BUSINESS ABL Amalgamated Bank 2000 Universal Bank ADB Agricultural Development Bank 1965 Development Bank BBG Barclays Bank Ghana 1918 Universal Bank CAL CAL Merchant Bank 1991 Universal Bank EBG Ecobank Ghana Limited 1990 Universal Bank FAMBL First Atlantic Bank 1995 Universal Bank FBL Fidelity Bank Limited 2006 Universal Bank GCB Ghana Commercial Bank 1952 Universal Bank GTB Guaranty Trust Bank 2006 Universal Bank HFC HFC Bank Limited 2002 Universal Bank ICB International Commercial Bank 1996 Universal Bank INTER Intercontinental Bank Plc 2006 Universal Bank MAB Metropolitan Allied Bank 1995 Commercial Bank MBG Merchant Bank Ghana Limited 1972 Universal Bank NIB National Investment Bank 1963 Development Bank PBL Prudential Bank Limited 1997 Commercial Bank SBL Stabic Bank Ghana Limited 2000 Universal Bank SCB Standard Chartered Bank 1896 Universal Bank SG-SSB SG-SSB Bank Limited 1976 Universal Bank TTB The Trust Bank 1994 Universal Bank UBA United Bank for Africa 2005 Universal Bank UNI Unibank Ghana Limited 1999 Universal Bank Zenith Zenith Bank 2005 Universal Bank Source:http://www.bog.gov.gh/privatecontent/File/BankingSupervision/Licensed%20Banks%20%20Addresses%20November%202008(1).pdf Until 1957 the West African Currency Board (WACB) acted as the only board under the Colonial regime conferred with the authority to exchange sterling to Gold Coast pound. Government of the then Gold Coast declared its intention to issue its own currency after independence. Politicians and economists were of the strong opinion that with the establishment of a Central Bank, Ghanas independence will have a significant meaning in political history. In view of this, preparations started which ended up in the establishment of the Bank of Ghana on the 4th of March 1957 under the Bank of Ghana Ordinance (No.34) of 1957 passed by the British Parliament. The whole idea for the establishment of a Central Bank was to meet the financial needs of vast indigenous sectors of the economy as well as the new independent Ghana government. After the establishment of Bank of Ghana (replaced WACB) as the central bank, the 1957 ordinance empowered the bank to primarily assume the following role in Ghana when it first begun formal operations on 1st August 1957 (www.bog.gov.gh): Printing out and redeeming bank notes and coins. Lender of last resort for banks in Ghana. Using fiscal and monetary policies to regulate money supply and maintaining monetary stability. Advise the government and be the main source to finance to the government of Ghana. Supervise and regulate all banks in Ghana. The legal and regulatory frameworks in which financial intermediaries operate in Ghana are as follows (www.bog.gov.gh): Bank of Ghana Act 2002, Act 612 Banking Act, 2004 (Act 673) Financial Institutions (Non-Bank) Law 1993, PNDC Law 328 Companies Code Act 179, 1963 Bank of Ghana Notices /Directives / Circulars / Regulations Non-Banking Financial Sector Ghana has achieved significant success in the economy particularly in the non-banking sector as a result of initiating the structural adjustment program, liberalizing the economy and by passing the Banking law in 1989 and the Non-bank financial law in 1993. These initiatives embarked by the government of Ghana have paved way for new entrants in the private sector and also transformed the existing financial institutions to diversify into the financial system. Consequently, there has been a rapid growth of Non-Bank Financial Institutes (NBFIs) with the prime aim of providing financial services to potential target groups outside the banking system (Ziorklui, S. Q. 2001). According to the Ghana Investment Promotion Centre the financial system in Ghana includes the following licensed non-Bank Financial Institutions: Insurance companies Stock exchange Building Society Mortgage Finance Co. Venture Capital Funding Financing Trust Company Credit unions Discount houses Financial houses Leasing companies Savings and loans associations 2.2 Objectives of Financial Sector Adjustment Program (FINSAP) According to Ziorklui S. Q. (2001), FINSAP was introduced and implemented in two phases. He further outlines the main objectives in both phases of the implementation. The first phase was implemented in 1988 with its main objectives as follows; FINSAP I Embark on restructuring to address financially distressed banks. Mobilize savings and strive to improve efficiency in the allocation of credit. Establish an effective regulatory and supervision system to monitor and improve the banking sector. Improve and strengthen the money and capital markets. To establish a non- performing assets recovery trust. The second phase of FINSAP was implemented in 1990 with the following objectives; FINSAP II Promote foreign investment and increase private participation in the banking sector in Ghana. Continue the implementation of policies adopted under the first phase of the financial sector adjustment program (FINSAP 1) to restructure the financial sector. Better manage the collection of non-performing loans by Non-Performing Assets Recovery Trust (NPART). Promote and develop non-Bank financial Institutions (NBFIs) to be more effective and efficient in savings mobilization. 2.3 SWOT Analysis Financial Sector Adjustment Program (FINSAP) This section seeks to determine whether the main objectives under the implementation of the financial sector reforms (FINSAP) are attainab
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
There are many processes a newspaper must go through before it can be sold in a newsagent and lots of people are involved in making just one article. The process that makes this article is called Ã¢â¬ËGate keepingÃ¢â¬â¢. To begin with, the news is first caught hold of by the news agencies, who then sell the stories to the news media. The copy taster then makes a quick selection of stories they consider news worthy to the paper they are working for, although they only dismiss the obvious non Ã¢â¬â news worthy stories as they donÃ¢â¬â¢t hold a great deal of responsibility. What they consider suitable they send off to the news editor. It is the news editorÃ¢â¬â¢s job to make a definitive judgment if which stories will be followed up and which ones will not. They decide what angle to take on the story according to what perceptions they want to portray to the reader. They then select, in their own opinion, reporters and photographers they consider suitable to create the story. However, if the story took place in another county, a foreign news editor will be assigned to this job instead. Photographers and reporters work on the same time scale. They decide how to display the information, and it is their job to research the story before working on it so that they have their facts clear (this also comes into importance when the story is handed to the sub editor). This might include going to the site the event took place, going to interviews, searching the library or the internet. The reporters will then write up the story taking into consideration what the news editor has suggested to them. Their copy must be given to the news editor before the deadline. The news editor will then check it, and make sure it has taken the correct angles and spins. If it has not they will give it back to the reporter with suggestions of how to make it more news worthy. The photographers discuss with the head photographer what photos will be best suited to the story. They then research the story, and their prints must be developed and handed to the picture editor by the deadline stated. It is the picture editorÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility to crop and enlarge the photos, to best fit the story. Everything is then handed to the sub editor who will then correct spelling and grammar, write eye catching headlines and captions, check that the story is within the law, i.e. so no one can take legal action against the newspaper. They also decide the layout of the article, making sure words donÃ¢â¬â¢t overlap pictures etc. Everything is then handed to the editor who then writes an editorial and is in charge of advertising. Designers are employed to create adverts and work on features. For smaller articles in the newspaper, a features editor is employed. Therefore a newspaper begins at a news agency and end up at a newsagent.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
A Summary of Past, Present, and Future Tense by Gregory Mir This article is a look at technology effect upon artist and the style or medium of art that can be developed and produced. Author Gregory Mir working with others hoped to create and exhibition that showcased the work of those artists who contributed to the advancement of Ã¢â¬Å"digital practiceÃ¢â¬ , along with their attempts to identify the intricacies of the digital spectrum.I think this article for the most part explains how his selections of artist and their work, was mindful of establishing a past, present, and future artistic media theme collection. The author starts with a 1965 piece from artist Name June Pack a composer, who is credited with introducing others to the idea of using video as a way of expressing art. It should also be noted that the article made a case that the art of tomorrow is the art of the media, past and present. This particular art form is Just as much about visual image as much as music and pe rformance.It also incorporates the manipulation of hardware and includes software-concepts in equal measure. The article points out that what once could have been included under the heading of media art, has since moved into a variety of ewe artistic genres, or dissimilar forms whose definitions are instead more oriented on disciplines such as science and technology. The article also shows this development is being carried forward by individuals whose identity are often tied together by certain parameters such as artist, social worker, experienced designer and engineer.And whose actions come out of a clear understanding of technology as well as the associated social and cultural aspects, like those individuals that work in the open source medium, and who are masters of technological components. Those individuals who by their very nature ignore rules found in user manuals, and use technological devices and systems in ways that I am sure were unintended by those who created or markete d them to consumers the world over.I would point to the use of a magnet sitting on top of a TV as a way of creating abstract patterns of light. While simple in its design, the very idea of Magnet TV or the Web Stalker who strips away code to reveal the skeletal structure of a particular website is a tribute to the creative mind of the artist, and the use of available technology. I would say that in the world of media arts and animation, if you can imagine it you can create it as each of these selections shows.Overall, the author thought of combining elements from business, entertainment, communications, as well as artists and other professionals who may operate in a different space. The article concludes with a look at the history of digital art, as Mr.. Mir raises comparisons and dilemmas that allow those of us readers to question, reflect upon, and decide on the status of new media art. A Summary of Past, Present, and Future Tense by Gregory
Friday, November 8, 2019
Credit risks in financial markets Credit risks in financial markets Signs of trouble started to multiply early in 2007.On February 22; HSBC fired the head of its U.S mortgage lending business, recognizing losses reaching $10.8 billion. On March 9, DR Horton, the biggest homebuilder, warned of losses from subprime mortgages. On March 12, New Century Financial, one of the biggest subprime lenders, had its shares suspended from trading amid fears that the company was headed for bankruptcy. On March 13, it was reported that late payments on mortgages and home foreclosures rose to new highs. On March 16, Accredited Home Lenders Holding put up $2.7 billion of its subprime loan book for sale at a heavy discount to generate cash for business operations. On April 2, New Century Financial filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection after it was forced to repurchase billions of dollars worth of bad loans. On June 15, 2007, Bear Stearns announced that two large mortgage hedge funds were having trouble meeting margin calls. Bear grudgingly created a $3.2 billion credit line to bail out one fund and let the other collapse. Investors` equity of $1.5 billion was mostly wiped out. As late as July 2007, Bernanke still estimated subprime losses at only about $100 billion. When Merrill Lynch and Citigroup took big write-down on in-house collateralized debt obligations, the markets actually staged a relief rally. The SP 500 hit a new high in mid-July. It was only at the beginning of August that financial markets really took fright. It came as a shock when Bear Stearns filed for bankruptcy protection for two hedge funds exposed to subprime loans and stopped clients from withdrawing cash from a third fund. As mentioned, Bear Stearns had tried to save these entities by providing $3.2 billion of additional funding. Liquidity risks in financial markets Once the crisis erupted, financial markets unraveled with remarkable rapidity. Everything that could go wrong did. Investment banks carried large positions of CDOs off balance sheet in so-called structured investment vehicles (SIVs). The SIVs financed their positions by issuing asset backed commercial paper. As the value of CDOs came into question, the asset-backed commercial paper market dried up, and the investment banks were forced to bail out their SIVs. Most investment banks took the SIVs into their balance sheet and were forced to recognize large losses in the process. Investment banks were also sitting on large loan commitments to finance leveraged buyouts. In the normal course of events, they would package these loans as collateralized loan obligations (CLOs) and sell them off, but the CLO market came to a standstill together with the CDO market, and the banks were left holding a bag worth about $250 billion. Some banks allowed their SIVs to go bust, and some reneged on their leveraged buyout obligations. This, together with the size of the losses incurred by the banks, served to unnerve the stock market, and price movements became chaotic. So-called market-neutral hedge funds, which exploit small discrepancies in market prices by using very high leverage, ceased to be market neutral and incurred unusual losses. A few highly leveraged ones were wiped out, damaging the reputation of their sponsors and unleashing lawsuits. All this put tremendous pressure on the banking system. Banks had to put additional items on their balance sheets at a time when their capital base was impaired by unexpected losses. Banks had difficulty assessing their exposure and even greater difficulties estimating the exposure of their counterparts. Consequently, they were reluctant to lend to each other and eager to hoard their liquidity. At first, central banks found it difficult to inject enough liquidity because commercial banks avoided using any of the facilities which had an onus attached to them, and they were also reluctant to deal with each other, but eventually these obstacles were overcome .After all, if there is one thing central banks know how to do, that is to provide liquidity. Only the Bank of England suffered a major debacle when it attempted to rescue Northern Rock, an overextended mortgage lender. Its rescue effort resulted in a run on the bank. Eventually Northern Rock was nationalized and its obligations add ed to the national debt, pushing the United Kingdom beyond the limits imposed by the Maastricht Treaty. Extreme uncertainty and volatility in financial markets Although liquidity had been provided, the crisis refused to abate. Credit spreads continued to widen. Almost all the major banksCitigroup, Merrill Lynch, Lehman Brothers, Bank of America, Wachovia, UBS, Credit Suisseannounced major write-downs in the fourth quarter, and most have signaled continued write-downs in the fourth quarter, and most have signaled continued write-downs in 2008. Both AIG and Credit Suisse made preliminary fourth-quarter write-down announcements that they repeatedly revised, conveying the doubtless accurate impression that they had lost control of their balance sheets. A $7.2 billion trading fiasco at Societe Generale announced in January 2008, coincided with a selling climax in the stock market and an extraordinary 75 basis point cut in the federal funds rate eight days before the regularly scheduled meeting, when the rate was cut a further 50 basis points. This was unprecedented. Distress spread from residential real estate to credit card debt, auto debt, and commercial real estate. Trouble at the monocline insurance companies, which traditionally specialized in municipal bonds but ventured into insuring structured and synthetic products, caused the municipal bond market to be disrupted. An even larger unresolved problem is looming in the credit default swaps market.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Most Important Themes in The Crucible, Analyzed SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips The Crucible remains a staple of high school English because it is rich in themes that are consistently relevant to human beings regardless of time period. But these themes aren't always easy to explain or dissect in the context of the play, and they can be even harder to develop into essays. Read on for an overview of what a theme is, a list of important themes in The Crucible with specific act-by-act details, and a summary of how to use this information in your essays and other assignments. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s a Theme? Why Are Themes Important? Before I get into the nitty-gritty of howThe Cruciblethemes are expressed, let's do a quick overview of what themes are and why they matter. A theme is a central topic that is addressed by a work of literature. Themes can be expressed in many different ways. In the case of a play like The Crucible, themes are revealed mainly through the dialogue of the characters. They're also revealed though events in the plot. Themes tell us what the purpose of the work is. What is the writer attempting to convey to the viewer? The Crucible's themes have lent the play artistic longevity because they're more or less universal to the human experience across time.If you hope to write an awesome essay onThe Crucible, you should have extensive knowledge of its themes. If you can show that you understand the themes of a work of literature, you've clearly mastered the material on a deeper level.In the next few sections,I'll take a look at a group of broad themes inThe Crucible, including irony, hysteria, reputation, and power. Theme 1: Irony First off, what is irony? Many people are under the impression that irony is just when something happens that you don't expect (or that you really hoped wouldn't happen). In reality, true irony only happens when a situation is the exact opposite of what you would expect.The classic example of an incorrect use of irony is in Alanis Morisette's song "Ironic" when she says that "rain on your wedding day" is an example of irony. Well, it's not. Sure, you don't expect or want rain, but it's not the polar opposite of getting married. A real example of irony would be if two married guests got into a fight about going to your wedding that ended in their divorce. Irony abounds throughout The Crucibleascharacters who believe they are combating the DevilÃ¢â¬â¢s handiwork actually perform it themselves.The ruthlessness with which the suspected witches are treated is aimed at purifying Salem, but it achieves the opposite outcome. The town slips further and further into chaos and paranoia until it reaches a point of total devastation.As Reverend Hale says to Danforth, Ã¢â¬Å"Excellency, there are orphans wandering from house to house; abandoned cattle bellow on the highroads, the stink of rotting crops hangs everywhere, and no man knows when the harlotsÃ¢â¬â¢ cry will end his life - and you wonder yet if rebellionÃ¢â¬â¢s spoke?Ã¢â¬ (Act 4, pg. 121). The court's attempts to preserve Puritan morality by arresting and executing accused witches ironically lead to the removal of the most virtuous people from society. These people are the only ones who refuse to throw out false accusations or lie about involvement in witchcraft, so they find themselves condemned (this is the fate of Rebecca Nurse). This means that much of the population that remains is comprised of the power-hungry, the selfish, and the cowardly. Act 1 There are several ironies in Act 1 that center around Abigail Williams. In her conversation with John, Abigail claims that he helped her realize all the lies she was told by two-faced people in Salem who only publicly adhere to the conventions of respectable society (pg. 22).The irony is that, in the face of JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s rejection, Abigail turns around and creates her own lies soon after that give her increased control over the society she resents.She puts on a fake front to get what she wants, ultimately creating a persona thatÃ¢â¬â¢s even worse than that of the hypocrites she criticizes.AbigailÃ¢â¬â¢s many deceptions are sometimes laughably ironic as she chastises others for lying even as she is spinning falsehoods.In this act, she yells Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t lie!Ã¢â¬ at Tituba immediately before she tells some of the most damning lies of the play accusing Tituba of witchcraft (Ã¢â¬Å"She comes to me while I sleep; sheÃ¢â¬â¢s always making me dream corruptions!Ã¢â¬ pg. 4 1). Hale also makes some unintentionally ironic statements in Act 1 when he begins his investigation.He claims that they must not jump to conclusions based on superstition in their investigation of BettyÃ¢â¬â¢s affliction.Hale is convinced that a scientific inquiry based only on facts and reality can be conducted to detect a supernatural presence. This is ironic becausesearching for "the Devil's marks" as the potential cause of an ailment is inherently superstitious. Once the accusations begin, Parris initiates an ironic thought process that persists throughout The Crucible: Ã¢â¬Å"You will confess yourself or I will take you out and whip you to your death, Tituba!Ã¢â¬ (pg. 42).This Ã¢â¬Å"confess or dieÃ¢â¬ mindset is one of the central ironies of the play.The whole purpose of a trial is to hear both sides of the story before a verdict is reached.In telling people they must confess to their crimes or be hanged, the officials show that they have already decided the person is guilty no matter what evidence is provided in their defense. Act 2 In Act 2, John ProctorÃ¢â¬â¢s guilt over his affair with Abigail is demonstrated through an ironic exchange with Reverend Hale. When Hale asks him to recite his commandments, the only one he forgets is adultery.This is also the commandment that he has violated most explicitly, so youÃ¢â¬â¢d think it would be the first one to spring to mind.The fact that he forgets only this commandment shows that he is trying extremely hard to repress his guilt. This act also sees the irony of Hale discussing the Ã¢â¬Å"powers of the darkÃ¢â¬ that are attacking Salem (pg. 61).This is irony of the same type that I discussed in the overview of this theme.Hale doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t realize that his own fears and suspicions are the real powers of the dark.Salem is under attack from the hysteria that is encouraged by the same people who seek to keep imaginary supernatural demons at bay. Act 3 In Act 3, Hale continues to make ironic statements about the existence of concrete proof for the accusations of witchcraft.While touting his holy credentials, he claims that he Ã¢â¬Å"dare not take a life without there be a proof so immaculate no slightest qualm of my conscience may doubt itÃ¢â¬ (pg. 91).This Ã¢â¬Å"immaculate proofÃ¢â¬ that has led him to sign numerous death warrants is nothing but the fabrications of teenage girls and other townspeople seeking petty revenge.These types of statements made by Hale earlier in the play become even more ironic in Act 4 when he realizes he made a horrible mistake by trusting the Ã¢â¬Å"evidenceÃ¢â¬ that was presented to him. AbigailÃ¢â¬â¢s presence is always rife with irony in The Crucible, as she constantly chastises others for sins she herself has committed.When she is brought in for questioning and claims to see MaryÃ¢â¬â¢s familiar spirit, she says Ã¢â¬Å"Envy is a deadly sin, Mary.Ã¢â¬ Abigail herself has acted out of envy for the entire play.Her jealousy of Elizabeth ProctorÃ¢â¬â¢s position as JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s wife has led her to attempted murder, first by the charm in the woods and now by accusing Elizabeth of witchcraft. Elizabeth is a victim of cruel irony in this Act when she is summoned to testify on the reasons why she dismissed Abigail from her household.John has already confessed that the affair was the reason for AbigailÃ¢â¬â¢s dismissal.John tells the judge to summon Elizabeth to back him up because he knows she always tells the truth.Ironically, though she is normally honest to a fault, in this situation Elizabeth decides to lie to preserve JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation, not knowing he has already confessed.This well-intentioned mistake seals both of their fates. Act 4 Act 4 is DanforthÃ¢â¬â¢s turn to shine in the irony department.He is appalled by ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of emotion when he asks her to help the court get a confession out of her husband (pg. 123).This attitude comes from a man who has shown no remorse for condemning people to death throughout the play.He refers to JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s refusal to confess as Ã¢â¬Å"a calamity,Ã¢â¬ looking past his own involvement in the larger calamity of the conviction that led John to this point. Later in Act 4, Danforth becomes angry at the implication that JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s confession may not be the truth. He insists,Ã¢â¬Å"I am not empowered to trade your life for a lieÃ¢â¬ (pg. 130).Of course, we know that Danforth has been trading peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives for lies this whole time.He has sentenced people to death based on lies about their dealings in black magic, and he has accepted other false confessions from those who would rather lie than be executed.To Danforth, anything that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t confirm that he was right all along is a lie. Discussion Questions Here are a few questions related to this theme that you can use to test your grasp of irony and its significance as a theme in The Crucible: How is ParrisÃ¢â¬â¢ fate in act 4 ironic when considering his role in the events of the play? Why do certain characters seem to be blind to the irony of their actions (Abigail, Danforth)? Why is hypocrisy so common in repressive communities like Salem? Explain the irony of HaleÃ¢â¬â¢s position at the end of the play as compared to his actions at the beginning. Hale wrongly assumes that his academic mindset will save him from jumping to the wrong conclusions in the witchcraft investigation. Ironically, he is the first to demand a confession from Tituba based on Abigail's dramatic but false testimony. Theme 2: Hysteria The thematic significance of hysteria builds quickly as accusations of witchcraft proliferate throughout Salem.The power of collective hysteria ultimately becomes insurmountable because it grows larger than the influence of the few rational voices in the community. The seeds are planted in Act 1, when Abigail is questioned about her activities in the woods and ends up accusing Tituba of witchcraft to avoid punishment.The town, already primed with rumors of black magic, is quickly willing to accept that the first few women who are accused are involved in black magic because theyÃ¢â¬â¢re beggars and slaves.No one considers that the accusers are lying, partially because theyÃ¢â¬â¢re seen as innocent children and partially because many Ã¢â¬Å"witchesÃ¢â¬ confess to avoid the death penalty. Armed with the false proof of these coerced confessions, the court officials aggressively persecute anyone who is accused.Hysteria blinds the people of Salem to reason as they become convinced that there is a grand Satanic plot brewing in town, and they must not hesitate to condemn anyone who could be involved.This is a lesson in how fear can twist perceptions of reality even for those who consider themselves reasonable under normal circumstances. Act 1 Even before Abigail makes accusations, rumors of witchcraft have morphed into accepted truths in the minds of the more superstitious members of the community.Ann Putnam jumps at any opportunity to blame supernatural forces for the deaths of her children.AnnÃ¢â¬â¢s extreme conclusions are gradually accepted because rational people are too afraid to challenge the consensus and risk bringing accusations upon themselves.HaleÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement is taken to mean that there must be a supernatural element to BettyÃ¢â¬â¢s illness.Rational explanations are ground up by the drama of the rumor mill, and people see only what they want to see (whatever keeps them in the good graces of society andmakes them feel the best about themselves) in situations that don't appear to have easy explanations. The madness begins in earnest with AbigailÃ¢â¬â¢s claim that Tituba and Ruth were conjuring spirits in the woods.Parris is extremely dismayed by this revelation because of the damage it will do to his reputation.Thomas Putnam tells him to Ã¢â¬Å"Wait for no one to charge you - declare it yourself.Ã¢â¬ Parris must rush to be the first accuser so he can place himself beyond reproach. It's atoxic strategy that causes panic to spread quickly and fear for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life to take the place of rationality.Tituba is pressured to confess and name the names of other Ã¢â¬Å"witchesÃ¢â¬ to avoid execution, which leads to Abigail and BettyÃ¢â¬â¢s accusations, now validated by a coerced confession.This vicious cycle continues to claim the lives of more and more people as the play progresses. Act 2 By Act 2, there are nearly 40 people in jail accused of witchcraft.Many people confess when threatened with execution, and this only heightens the paranoid atmosphere.The authorities ignore any inconvenient logical objections to the proceedings because they, too, are swept up in the madness. The hysterical atmosphere and the dramatic performances of some of the accusers cause people to believe they have seen genuine proof of witchcraft.Each new false confession is thrown onto the pile of Ã¢â¬Å"evidenceÃ¢â¬ of a grand Satanic plot, and as the pile grows larger, the hysteria surrounding it is fed generously. This hysteria-based Ã¢â¬Å"evidenceÃ¢â¬ of witchcraft includes the discovery of the poppet in the Proctor household with a needle in it.Elizabeth's side of the story is disregarded because AbigailÃ¢â¬â¢s testimony is far more dramatic."She sat to dinner in Reverend Parris's house tonight, and without word nor warnin' she falls to the floor. Like a struck beast, he says, and screamed a scream that a bull would weep to hear. And he goes to save her, and, stuck two inches in the flesh of her belly, he draw a needle out." (Cheever pg. 71). The idea that a witch's familiar spirit is capable of stabbing people is too scary for the superstitious and now hysterical people of Salem to give Elizabeth the benefit of the doubt. No one even considers Mary's statement about sticking the needle in herself. In this environment, whoever yells the loudest seems to get the most credibility. Act 3 The depths of the hysteria that has gripped Salem are revealed in Act 3 when John finally confronts the court. Danforth makes a shocking argument defending the way the trials have been conducted, insisting that only the victimÃ¢â¬â¢s testimony can serve as reliable evidence in this type of trial.He is completely oblivious to the fact that the Ã¢â¬Å"victimsÃ¢â¬ might be lying.The court refuses to challenge anyone who claims to have been afflicted. When the petition testifying to the good character of the accused women is presented, the reaction from Danforth, Hathorne, and Parris is to arrest the people who signed it rather than considering that this might indicate that the women are innocent.Danforth is convinced that Ã¢â¬Å"there is a moving plot to topple Christ in the country!Ã¢â¬ and anyone who doubts the decisions of the court is potentially involved.They so fear the devilish consequences of challenging the accusers that theyÃ¢â¬â¢re willing to take them at their word and ignore any defenses the accused have to offer.Nowhere is there any consideration of ulterior motives. The power of mass hysteria is further revealed when Mary is unable to faint outside of a charged courtroom environment.She believed she had seen spirits earlier because she was caught up in the delusions of those around her.Abigail distracts the judges from any rational investigation in this act by playing into this hysteria.Danforth, who has the most authority, is also the most sold on her act, and it only takes a few screams to persuade him that heÃ¢â¬â¢s in the presence of witchcraft.This leads to MaryÃ¢â¬â¢s hysterical accusation of Proctor after she finds herself targeted by the other girls and about to be consumed by the hysteria herself if she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t contribute to it. Act 4 Danforth continues to demonstrate the effects of hysteria in act 4 even after things have died down a bit in Salem and there have been rumblings of discontent about the courtÃ¢â¬â¢s actions.As John gives his confession, Danforth says to Rebecca Nurse Ã¢â¬Å"Now, woman, you surely see it profit nothinÃ¢â¬â¢ to keep this conspiracy any further. Will you confess yourself with him?Ã¢â¬ (pg. 129)He is still convinced that all the prisoners are guilty and is determined to force them to admit their guilt. Danforth also becomes frustrated with Proctor when he wonÃ¢â¬â¢t name names in his confession: Ã¢â¬Å"Mr. Proctor, a score of people have already testified they saw [Rebecca Nurse] with the DevilÃ¢â¬ (pg. 130).Danforth insists that John must know more about the Devil's dealings than he has revealed.Though Rebecca Nurse's involvement has already been corroborated by other confessors, Danforth demands to hear it from John to confirm that John is fully committed to renouncing his supposed ties to Satan. Discussion Questions Here are a few questions about hysteria to consider now that you've read a summary of how this theme was expressed throughout the plot of the play: How does the hysteria in the play get started? What are some of the factors that feed the panic and suspicion in Salem, and why are officials (like Danforth) unable or unwilling to listen to reason? Is there any character besides John Proctor that represents the voice of common sense amidst the madness? Why is Cheever both astonished and afraid when he finds the poppet with the needle in it? Why is everyone so quick to believe AbigailÃ¢â¬â¢s story? Danforth explains that witchcraft is an invisible crime and that only the victims are reliable. How does this philosophy perpetuate hysteria? Even though there is significant reason to believe Abigail is lying about Elizabeth's familiar spirit stabbing her, the frenzied investigators ignore testimony that challenges their chosen witchy narrative. Theme 3: Reputation Concern for reputation is a theme that looms large over most of the events in The Crucible.Though actions are often motivated by fear and desires for power and revenge, they are also propped up by underlying worries about how a loss of reputation will negatively affect characters' lives.JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s concern for his reputation is strong throughout the play, and his hesitation to reveal AbigailÃ¢â¬â¢s true nature is a product of his own fears of being labeled an adulterer. Once there have been enough convictions, the reputations of the judges also become factors. They are extremely biased towards believing they have made the correct sentencing decisions in court thus far, so they are reluctant to accept new evidence that may prove them wrong.The importance placed on reputation helps perpetuate hysteria because it leads to inaction, inflexibility, and, in many cases, active sabotage of the reputations of others for selfish purposes. The overall message is that when a person's actions are driven by desires to preserve favorable public opinion rather than do the morally right thing, there can be extremely dire consequences. Act 1 Reverend Parris' concerns about his reputation are immediately evident in Act 1. Parris initially insists that there are Ã¢â¬Å"no unnatural causesÃ¢â¬ for BettyÃ¢â¬â¢s illness because he fears that he will lose favor with the townspeople if witchcraft is discovered under his roof.He questions Abigail aggressively because heÃ¢â¬â¢s worried his enemies will learn the full story of what happened in the woods first and use it to discredit him.Parris is very quick to position himself on the side of the accusers as soon as Abigail throws the first punch, and he immediately threatens violence on Tituba if she doesn't confess (pg. 42).He appears to have no governing system of morality. His only goal is to get on the good side of the community as a whole, even in the midst of this bout of collective hysteria. Abigail also shows concern for her reputation.She is enraged when Parris questions her suspicious dismissal from the Proctor household.Abigail insists that she did nothing to deserve it and tries to put all the blame on Elizabeth Proctor.She says, "My name is good in the village! I will not have it said my name is soiled! Goody Proctor is a gossiping liar!" (pg. 12) The first act of The Crucibleclearly establishes the fact that a bad reputation can damage a personÃ¢â¬â¢s position in this society severely and irreparably. Act 2 In this act, we learn more details about the accused that paint a clearer picture of the influence of reputation and social standing on the patterns of accusations.Goody Good, an old beggar woman, is one of the first to be named a witch. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s easy for more respectable citizens to accept that sheÃ¢â¬â¢s in league with the Devil because she is an "other" in Salem, just like Tituba.When Abigail accuses Elizabeth, a respected farmerÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, it shows that she is willing to take big risks to remove Elizabeth from the picture.SheÃ¢â¬â¢s not a traditionally accepted target like the others (except in her susceptibility as a woman to the misogyny that runs rampant in the play). In Act 2, the value of reputation in Salem starts to butt heads with the power of hysteria and fear to sway peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions (and vengeance to dictate their actions).Rebecca Nurse, a woman whose character was previously thought to be unimpeachable, is accused and arrested.This is taken as evidence that things are really getting out of control ("if Rebecca Nurse be tainted, then nothing's left to stop the whole green world from burning." Hale pg. 67).People in power continue to believe the accusers out of fear for their own safety, taking the hysteria to a point where no one is above condemnation. At the end this act, John Proctor delivers a short monologue anticipating the imminent loss of the disguises of propriety worn by himself and other members of the Salem community.The faces that people present to the public are designed to garner respect in the community, but the witch trials have thrown this system into disarray.ProctorÃ¢â¬â¢s good reputation is almost a burden for him at this point because he knows that he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t deserve it. In a way,John welcomes the loss of his reputation because he feels so guilty about the disconnect between howhe is perceived by others and the sins he has committed. Act 3 John Proctor sabotages his own reputation in Act 3 after realizing it's the only way he can discredit Abigail.This is a decision with dire consequences in a town where reputation is so important, a fact that contributes to the misunderstanding that follows.Elizabeth doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t realize that John is willing to sacrifice his reputation to save her life.She continues to act under the assumption that his reputation is of the utmost importance to him, and she does not reveal the affair. This lie essentially condemns both of them. Danforth also acts out of concern for his reputations here. Hereferences the many sentencing decisions he has already made in the trials of the accused. If Danforth accepts MaryÃ¢â¬â¢s testimony, it would mean that he wrongly convicted numerous people already. This fact could destroy his credibility, so he is biased towards continuing to trust Abigail.Danforth has extensive pride in his intelligence and perceptiveness. This makes him particularly averse to accepting that he's been fooled by a teenage girl. Act 4 Though hysteria overpowered the reputations of the accused in the past two acts, in act 4 the sticking power of their original reputations becomes apparent.John and RebeccaÃ¢â¬â¢s solid reputations lead to pushback against their executions even though people were too scared to stand up for them in the midst of the trials.Parris begs Danforth to postpone their hangings because he fears for his life if the executions proceed as planned.He says, Ã¢â¬Å"I would to God it were not so, Excellency, but these people have great weight yet in the townÃ¢â¬ (pg. 118). However, this runs up against DanforthÃ¢â¬â¢s desire to preserve his reputation as a strong judge.He believes that Ã¢â¬Å"Postponement now speaks a floundering on my part; reprieve or pardon must cast doubt upon the guilt of them that died till now. While I speak GodÃ¢â¬â¢s law, I will not crack its voice with whimperingÃ¢â¬ (pg. 119).DanforthÃ¢â¬â¢s image is extremely valuable to him, and he refuses to allow ParrisÃ¢â¬â¢ concerns to disrupt his belief in the validity of his decisions. In the final events of Act 4, John Proctor has a tough choice to make between losing his dignity and losing his life. The price he has to pay in reputation to save his own life is ultimately too high.He chooses to die instead of providing a false confession because he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t think life will be worth living after he is so disgraced. As he says,Ã¢â¬Å"How may I live without my name? I have given you my soul; leave me my name!Ã¢â¬ (pg. 133) Discussion Questions Here are a few discussion questions to consider after you've read my summary of how the theme of reputation motivates characters and plot developments in The Crucible: How are charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviors affected by concern for their reputations? Is reputation more important than truth? Why doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t John immediately tell the court that he knows Abigail is faking? How does ParrisÃ¢â¬â¢ pride prevent him from doing anything to stop the progression of events in the play? Why does Mary Warren warn John about testifying against Abigail? Why does he decide to do so anyways? Why does John decide to ruin his reputation in Act 3 by confessing to the affair? How is the arrest of Rebecca Nurse a sign that the hysteria in Salem has gotten out of control? How does reputation influence who is first accused of witchcraft? If you're an old beggar woman who sometimes takes shelter in this creepy shack, you better believe these jerks are gonna turn on you as soon as anyone says the word "witch." Theme #4: Power and Authority The desire to preserve and gain power pervadesThe Crucible as the witch trials lead to dramatic changes in which characters hold the greatest control over the course of events.AbigailÃ¢â¬â¢s power skyrockets as the hysteria grows more severe.Where before she was just an orphaned teenager, now, in the midst of the trials, she becomes the main witness to the inner workings of a Satanic plot.She has the power to utterly destroy peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives with a single accusation because she is seen as a victim and a savior. The main pillars of traditional power are represented by the law and the church.These two institutions fuse together in The Crucible to actively encourage accusers and discourage rational explanations of events. The girls are essentially given permission by authority figures to continue their act because they are made to feel special and important for their participation.The people in charge are so eager to hold onto their power that if anyone disagrees with them in the way the trials are conducted, it is taken as a personal affront and challenge to their authority. Danforth, Hathorne, and Parris become even more rigid in their views when they feel they are under attack. Act 1 As mentioned in the overview, religion holds significant power over the people of Salem.Reverend Parris is in a position of power as the town's spiritual leader, but he is insecure about his authority.He believes there is a group of people in town determined to remove him from this position, and he will say and do whatever it takes to retain control.This causes problems down the line as Parris allows his paranoia about losing his position to translate into enthusiasm for the witch hunt. Abigail, on the other hand, faces an uphill battle towards more power over her situation.She is clearly outspoken and dominant, but her initial position in society is one of very little influence and authority.One path to higher standing and greater control would be in becoming John ProctorÃ¢â¬â¢s wife.When she canÃ¢â¬â¢t get John to abandon Elizabeth for her, she decides to take matters into her own hands and gain control through manipulating the fears of others. Abigail accuses Tituba first because Tituba is the one person below her on the ladder of power, so she makes an easy scapegoat. If Tituba was permitted to explain what really happened, the ensuing tragedy might have been prevented.No one will listen to Tituba until she agrees to confirm the version of events that the people in traditional positions of authority have already decided is true, a pattern which continues throughout the play.Tituba is forced to accept her role as a pawn for those with greater authority and a stepping stone for AbigailÃ¢â¬â¢s ascent to power. Act 2 By Act 2, there have been notable changes in the power structure in Salem as a result of the ongoing trials.Mary WarrenÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of self-importance has increased as a result of the perceived value of her participation in court.Elizabeth notes that Mary's demeanor is now like that of Ã¢â¬Å"the daughter of a princeÃ¢â¬ (pg. 50).This new power is exciting and very dangerous because it encourages the girls to make additional accusations in order to preserve their value in the eyes of the court. Abigail, in particular, has quickly risen from a nobody to one of the most influential people in Salem.AbigailÃ¢â¬â¢s low status and perceived innocence under normal circumstances allow her to claim even greater power in her current situation.No one thinks a teenage orphan girl is capable of such extensive deception (or delusion), so she is consistently trusted.In one of the most well-known quotes in the play, John Proctor angrily insists that Ã¢â¬Å"the little crazy children are jangling the keys of the kingdomÃ¢â¬ (pg. 73), meaning the girls are testing out the extent of the chaos they can create with their newfound power. Act 3 In Act 3, AbigailÃ¢â¬â¢s power in the courthouse is on display.She openly threatens Danforth for even entertaining Mary and John's accusations of fraud against her. Though Danforth is the most powerful official figure in court, Abigail manipulates him easily with her performance as a victim of witchcraft. He's already accepted her testimony as evidence, so he is happy for any excuse to believe her over John and Mary.John finally comes to the realization that Mary's truthful testimony cannot compete with the hysteria that has taken hold of the court.The petition he presents to Danforth is used as a weapon against the signers rather than a proof of the innocence of Elizabeth, Martha, and Rebecca. Abigail's version of events is held to be true even after John confesses to their affair in a final effort to discredit her.Logic has no power to combat paranoia and superstition even when the claims of the girls are clearly fraudulent.John Proctor surrenders his agency at the end of Act 3 i n despair at the determination of the court to pursue the accusations of witchcraft and ignore all evidence of their falsehood. Act 4 By Act 4, many of the power structures that were firmly in place earlier in the play have disintegrated.Reverend Parris has fallen from his position of authority as a result of the outcomes of the trials.He is weak and vulnerable after Abigail's theft of his life's savings, and heÃ¢â¬â¢s even facing death threats from the townspeople as a result of John and Rebecca's imminent executions.In Act 1 he jumped on board with the hysteria to preserve his power, but he ended up losing what little authority he had in the first place (and, according to Miller's afterward, was voted out of office soon after the end of the play). The prisoners have lost all faith in earthly authority figures and look towards the judgment of God.The only power they have left is in refusing to confess and preserving their integrity. In steadfastly refusing to confess, Rebecca Nurse holds onto a great deal of power.The judges cannot force her to commit herself to a lie, and her martyrdom severely damages their legitimacy and favor amongst the townspeople. Discussion Questions Here are some discussion questions to consider after reading about the thematic role of the concepts of power and authority in the events of the play: How do the witch trials empower individuals who were previously powerless? How does Reverend Hale make Tituba feel important? Compare and contrast three authority figures in this drama: Hale, Danforth, and Parris. What motivates their attitudes and responses toward the witch trials? What makes Danforth so unwilling to consider that the girls could be pretending? Why does Mary Warren behave differently when she becomes involved in the trials? How do the actions of authority figures encourage the girls to continue their accusations and even genuinely believe the lies theyÃ¢â¬â¢re telling? Mary Warren when she comes back from Salem in Act 2 A Quick Look at Some Other The CrucibleThemes These are themes that could be considered subsets of the topics detailed in the previous sections, but there's also room to discuss them as topics in their own right. I'll give a short summary of how each plays a role in the events of The Crucible. Guilt The theme of guilt is one that is deeply relevant to John Proctor's character development throughout the play. John feels incredibly ashamed of his affair with Abigail, so he tries to bury it and pretend it never happened. His guilt leads to great tension in interactions with Elizabeth because he projects his feelings onto her, accusing her of being judgmental and dwelling on his mistakes. In reality, he is constantly judging himself, and this leads to outbursts of anger against others who remind him of what he did (he already feels guilty enough!). Hale also contends with his guilt in act 4 for his role in condemning the accused witches, who he now believes are innocent. There's a message here about the choices we have in dealing with guilt. John attempts to crush his guilt instead of facing it, which only ends up making it an even more destructive factor in his life. Hale tries to combat his guilt by persuading the prisoners to confess, refusing to accept that the damage has already been done. Both Hale and Proctor don't want to live with the consequences of their mistakes, so they try to ignore or undo their past actions. Misogyny and Portrayal of Women Miller's portrayal of women in The Crucible is a much-discussed topic. The attitudes towards women in the 1950s, when the play was written, are evident in the roles they're given. The most substantial female character is Abigail, who is portrayed as a devious and highly sexualized young woman. She is cast as a villain. Then, on the other end of the spectrum, we have Rebecca Nurse. She is a sensible, saintly old woman who chooses to martyr herself rather than lie and confess to witchcraft. The other two main female characters, Elizabeth and Mary Warren, are somewhat bland. Elizabeth is defined by her relationship to John, and Mary is pushed around by other characters (mostly men) throughout the play. The Crucible presents a view of women that essentially reduces them to caricatures of human beings that are defined by their roles as mothers, wives, and servants to men. Abigail, the one character who breaks from this mold slightly, is portrayed extremely unsympathetically despite the fa ct that the power dynamic between her and John makes him far more culpable in their illicit relationship. Deception Deception is a major driving force inThe Crucible. This includes not only accusatory lies about the involvement of others in witchcraft but also the lies that people consistently tell about their own virtuousness and purity in such a repressive society. The turmoil in Salem is propelled forward by desires for revenge and power that have been simmering beneath the town's placid exterior. There is a culture of keeping up appearances already in place, which makes it natural for people to lie about witnessing their neighbors partaking in Satanic rituals when the opportunity arises (especially if it means insulating themselves from similar accusations and even achieving personal gain). The Crucible provides an example of how convenient lies can build on one another to create a universally accepted truth even in the absence of any real evidence. Even before the witch trials, the people of Salem are doing lots of little magic tricks to make all their unholy thoughts and actions disappear. AbracaDENIAL! How to Write AboutThe CrucibleThemes It's one thing to understand the major themes in The Crucible, and it's another thing completely to write about them yourself. Essay prompts will ask about these themes in a variety of different ways. Some will be very direct. An example would be something like: "How are themes like hysteria, hunger for power, reputation, or any of a number of others functional in the drama? Choose a single character and discuss how this person embodies one of the themes. How is MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s underlying message revealed in one of these themes and through the character?" In a case like this, you'd be writing directly about a specific theme in connection to one of the characters. Essay questions that ask about themes in this straightforward way can be tricky because there's a temptation to speak in vague terms about the theme's significance. Always include specific details, including direct quotes, to support your argument about how the theme is expressed in the play. Other essay questions may not ask you directly about the themes listed in this article, but that doesn't mean that the themes are irrelevant to your writing. Here's another example of a potential essay question for The Crucible that's less explicit in its request for you to discuss themes of the play: "Most of the main characters in the play have personal flaws and either contribute to or end up in tragedy. Explain who you believe is the central tragic character in the play. What are their strengths and personal flaws? How does the central tragic character change throughout the play, and how does this relate to the play's title? How do outside forces contribute to the character's flaws and eventual downfall?" In this case, you're asked to discuss the concept of a tragic character, explaining who fits that mold in The Crucible and why. There are numerous connections between the flaws of individual characters and the overarching themes of the play that could be brought into this discussion. This is especially true with the reputation and hysteria themes. If you argued that John Proctor was the central tragic character, you could say that his flaws were an excessive concern for his reputation and overconfidence in the power of reason to overcome hysteria. Both flaws led him to delay telling the truth about Abigail's fraudulent claims and their previous relationship, thus dooming himself and many others to death or imprisonment. Even with prompts that ask you to discuss a specific character or plot point, you can find ways to connect your answer to major themes. These connections will bolster your responses by positioning them in relation to the most important concepts discussed throughout th e play. What's Next? Now that you've read about the most important themes in The Crucible, check out ourlist of every single character in the play, including brief analyses of their relationships and motivations. You can also read my full summary of The Crucible here for a review of exactly what happens in the plot in each act. The Crucible is commonly viewed as an allegorical representation of the communist "witch hunts" conducted in the 1950s. Take a look at this article for details on the history and thematic parallels behind this connection. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:
Sunday, November 3, 2019
The Civil War in England - Essay Example This paper shall discuss the effects that the war had on the people of England and the different aspects of the nation then. Before the commencement of the war and even during it, the reins of the economy and the funds of the government rested with the Parliament that would then be in a position to dictate terms to the King (Bucholz and Key, 254). This marked a change in the way in which revenue was utilized during the Elizabethan age when the monarch had a far greater role to play in the handling of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s funds that when the Stuart dynasty took over. The expenses of the monarch would have to be ratified by the Parliament and this was a great blow to James I. He however, managed to maintain a balance between the demands of the Parliament and the maintenance of his power. His son, Charles I, however, could not do so. Many attribute this failure to CharlesÃ¢â¬â¢ belief in the divine rights that he believed kings to have (Trueman). According to this theory, kings were th e deputies of god on earth and this right of the king could not be taken away by the Parliament which according to him was merely a collection of mortals. This belief of Charles would be the reason that led to his ultimate execution. His failure to recognize the real aspirations of his people finally led to his downfall. Apart from this, one also needs to look at the flawed military strategies that were employed by the Royalists and the successful ones by the Parliamentarians. John Pym, according to Robert Bucholz and Newton Key, was instrumental in ensuring the victory of the Parliamentarian cause in many battles that occurred during the civil war (Bucholz and Key, 254). Religious reasons were very important in the civil war. It marked a transition to a phase in history where religion would be a major determinant in political affairs in an explicit manner. The puritans were responsible in a large way for the civil war. Oliver Cromwell himself was a puritan (Oliver Cromwell). These aspects along with the fact of the different sects that people in England, Ireland and Scotland were a part of, had led to tensions within the nation (Stoyle). A different form of politics too had taken shape, one that would thrive on the politics of identity. This was a change from earlier days. This change has survived to modern times when political parties survive on the identity of the community they represent. The major economic effect of the English Civil War was its detrimental impact on trade. Ben Coates in his work The Impact of the English Civil War on the Economy of London observes that the years spanning from 1648 to 1650 were marked by poor agricultural produce and naval and trade weakness. The recession of 1648-50, however, was a product of bad harvests and weakness on the seas. The Dutch regained their supremacy in the seas and thus undermined English trade and industries. It is noteworthy that the war weakened the erstwhile flourishing English foreign trade at the pr ecise point of time when the Dutch consolidated their commercial and naval power after the completion of the Thirty Years' War (1648) (Coates, 22). The importance of these developments needs to be analyzed in conjunction with the role that these changes enabled in the transition to modernity. Not only were the seeds of democracy sown
Friday, November 1, 2019
Enquiry Topics - Essay Example The debates in the state legislatures for ratification threw up serious concerns about the absence of protection of individual rights in the constitution which could lead to the government imposing tyrannical controls over its citizens. James Madison, the principal architect of the constitution, promised that the document would be amended to include individual rights. Several key states insisted on amendments and two states, North Carolina and Rhode Island refused to ratify the constitution without such amendments (Bill of Rights Institute1, 2010). This was the reason of urgency in introducing the legislation when the first congress met. The Bill of Rights is important because it guarantees what are termed the natural or inalienable rights of people. In the US Declaration of Independence, these rights include Ã¢â¬Å"life, liberty and the pursuit of happinessÃ¢â¬ . The ten amendments to the constitution that make up the Bill of Rights describe elements of these natural rights and en sure that the government cannot enact any laws that contravene these rights of the people. (Bill of Rights Institute 2, 2010). Though most people would name the First Amendment that guarantees freedom of speech, religion, assembly as the most important, the Fourth Amendment which protects citizens against unreasonable search and seizure has greater importance in distinguishing the US from a totalitarian state. This amendment ensures that no search or seizure can occur without a warrant issued on the basis of probable cause. The warrant also needs to describe the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized (Archives.gov, n.d) 2) What test is used to determine whether a police officerÃ¢â¬â¢s conduct constituted a Ã¢â¬Å"show of legal authorityÃ¢â¬ ? What factors are relevant in applying this test? How does the court determine when a seizure occurred? Why is it often necessary for the courts to pinpoint the exact moment a seizure occurred? By case law, a police offi cer is permitted to stop, interrogate and frisk a person if he has reasonable suspicion of wrong doing or to prevent the possibility of a crime being committed. Such detention or seizure without a warrant is considered to represent a Ã¢â¬Å"show of legal authorityÃ¢â¬ . The courts recognize that such police action is in violation of the provisions of the Fourth Amendment but have balanced this against the need to give the police some discretion for effective law enforcement. A police officer is permitted to approach an individual in a public place and ask if he will answer some questions. The individual may decline to do so and that cannot be the sole grounds for detaining that person. The person so stopped may be frisked for hidden weapons if the police officer believes there is danger to his person or to others from the individual. In stopping such an individual, there must be no excess display of force such as the police officer drawing a weapon or multiple officers surrounding the person (Gorton, 1970). In various cases, the Supreme Court has defined seizure of the person to occur when a reasonable person believes that he or she is no longer free to terminate the encounter with the police and leave. In the 1991 case California v. Holdari, D., the court has held that seizure occurs when an individual is subject to physical force or a show of authority and the person yields to such force or authority (Sullivan, 2010). It is important to pinpoint the exact moment when a seizure has occurred because the courts are required to exclude